8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Renal Insufficiency: Reduce the dose in patients with severe renal insufficiency. (8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary While published data cannot definitively establish the absence of risk, available published case reports have not established an association with tirofiban use during pregnancy and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Untreated myocardial infarction can be fatal to the pregnant woman and fetus (see Clinical Considerations). Studies with tirofiban HCl at intravenous doses up to 5 mg/kg/day (about 5 and 13 times the maximum recommended daily human dose for rat and rabbit, respectively, when compared on a body surface area basis) have revealed no harm to the fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk Myocardial infarction is a medical emergency in pregnancy which can be fatal to the pregnant woman and fetus if left untreated. Data Animal Data There was no evidence of maternal or developmental toxicity in any of the studies in Table 5. Table 5 Developmental Toxicity Studies Type of Study Species Dose/Exposure5 mg/kg/day is ~5 and 13 times the maximum recommended daily human dose for rat and rabbit, respectively, when compared on a body surface area basis. Duration/Timing Exposure (1) Range-finding Rat (N=30) 1, 2, 5 mg/kg/day IV (N=10 per group) Once daily from GD 6 through LD 20 (2) Developmental Toxicity Rat (N=66) 1, 2, 5 mg/kg/day IV (N=22 per group) Once daily from GD 6 through GD 20 (3) Developmental Toxicity with Postweaning Evaluation Rat (N=66) 1, 2, 5 mg/kg/day IV (N=22 per group) Once daily from GD 6 through LD 20 (4) Range-finding (non-pregnant) Rabbit (N=21) 1, 2, 5 mg/kg/day IV (N=7 per group) Once daily for 14 days (5) Range-finding (pregnant) Rabbit (N=30) 1, 2, 5 mg/kg/day IV (N=10 per group) Once daily from GD 7 through GD 20 (6) Developmental Toxicity Rabbit (N=60) 1, 2, 5 mg/kg/day (N=20 per group) IV Once daily from GD 7 through GD 20 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no data on the presence of tirofiban in human milk, the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant, or the effects of the drug on human milk production. However, tirofiban is present in rat milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for AGGRASTAT and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from AGGRASTAT or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of patients in controlled clinical studies of AGGRASTAT, 43% were 65 years and over, while 12% were 75 years and over. With respect to efficacy, the effect of AGGRASTAT in the elderly (≥65 years) appeared similar to that seen in younger patients (<65 years). Elderly patients receiving AGGRASTAT with heparin or heparin alone had a higher incidence of bleeding complications than did younger patients, but the incremental risk of bleeding in patients treated with AGGRASTAT in combination with heparin compared to the risk in patients treated with heparin alone was similar regardless of age. No dose adjustment is recommended for the elderly population [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. 8.6 Renal Insufficiency Patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency have decreased plasma clearance of AGGRASTAT. Reduce the dosage of AGGRASTAT in patients with severe renal insufficiency [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Safety and efficacy of AGGRASTAT has not been established in patients on hemodialysis.