Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 28 July 2017
CONTRAINDICATIONS Codeine-containing products are contraindicated for post-operative pain management in children who have undergone tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Tablets should not be administered to patients who have previously exhibited hypersensitivity to codeine or acetaminophen.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Tablets should be prescribed with caution in certain special-risk patients, such as the elderly or debilitated, and those with severe impairment of renal or hepatic function, head injuries, elevated intracranial pressure, acute abdominal conditions, hypothyroidism, urethral stricture, Addison's disease, or prostatic hypertrophy. INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS/CAREGIVERS Do not take Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Tablets, USP if you are allergic to any of its ingredients. If you develop signs of allergy such as a rash or difficulty breathing, stop taking Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Tablets, USP and contact your healthcare provider immediately. Do not take more than 4000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day. Call your doctor if you took more than the recommended dose. Codeine may impair mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery. Such tasks should be avoided while taking this product. Alcohol and other CNS depressants may produce an additive CNS depression, when taken with this combination product, and should be avoided. Codeine may be habit forming. Patients should take the drug only for as long as it is prescribed, in the amounts prescribed, and no more frequently than prescribed. Advise patients that some people have a genetic variation that results in codeine changing into morphine more rapidly and completely than other people. Most people are unaware of whether they are an ultra-rapid codeine metabolizer or not. These higher-than-normal levels of morphine in the blood may lead to life-threatening or fatal respiratory depression or signs of overdose such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing. Children with this genetic variation who were prescribed codeine after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy for obstructive sleep apnea may be at greatest risk based on reports of several deaths in this population due to respiratory depression. Codeine-containing products are contraindicated in all children who undergo tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Advise caregivers of children receiving codeine-containing products for other reasons to monitor for signs of respiratory depression. Nursing mothers taking codeine can also have higher morphine levels in their breast milk if they are ultra-rapid metabolizers. These higher levels of morphine in breast milk may lead to life-threatening or fatal side effects in nursing babies. Instruct nursing mothers to watch for signs of morphine toxicity in their infants including increased sleepiness (more than usual), difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, or limpness, Instruct nursing mothers to talk to the baby's doctor immediately if they notice these signs and, if they cannot reach the doctor right away, to take the baby to an emergency room or call 911 (or local emergency services). Laboratory Tests In patients with severe hepatic or renal disease, effects of therapy should be monitored with serial liver and/or renal function tests. Drug Interactions This drug may enhance the effects of other narcotic analgesics, alcohol, general anesthetics, tranquilizers such as chlordiazepoxide, sedative-hypnotics, or other CNS depressants, causing increased CNS depression. Drug and Laboratory Test Interactions Codeine may increase serum amylase levels. Acetaminophen may produce false-positive test results for urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility No adequate studies have been conducted in animals to determine whether acetaminophen and codeine have a potential for carcinogenesis or mutagenesis. No adequate studies have been conducted in animals to determine whether acetaminophen has a potential for impairment of fertility. Acetaminophen and codeine have been found to have no mutagenic potential using the Ames Salmonella-Microsomal Activation test, the Basc test on Drosophila germ cells, and the Micronucleus test on mouse bone marrow. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C Codeine: A study in rats and rabbits reported no teratogenic effect of codeine administered during the period of organogenesis in doses ranging from 5 to 120 mg/kg. In the rat, doses at the 120 mg/kg level, in the toxic range for the adult animal, were associated with an increase in embryo resorption at the time of implantation. In another study a single 100 mg/kg dose of codeine administered to pregnant mice reportedly resulted in delayed ossification in the offspring. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects: Dependence has been reported in newborns whose mothers took opiates regularly during pregnancy. Withdrawal signs include irritability, excessive crying, tremors, hyperreflexia, fever, vomiting and diarrhea. These signs usually appear during the first few days of life. Labor and Delivery Narcotic analgesics cross the placental barrier. The closer to delivery and the larger the dose used, the greater the possibility of respiratory depression in the newborn. Narcotic analgesics should be avoided during labor if delivery of a premature infant is anticipated. If the mother has received narcotic analgesics during labor, newborn infants should be observed closely for signs of respiratory depression. Resuscitation may be required (see Overdosage ). The effect of codeine, if any, on the later growth development and functional maturation of the child is unknown. Nursing Mothers Acetaminophen is excreted in breast milk in small amounts, but the significance of its effect on nursing infants is not known. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from acetaminophen, a decision should be made whether to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Codeine is secreted into human milk. In women with normal codeine metabolism (normal CYP2D6 activity), the amount of codeine secreted into human milk is low and dose-dependent. Despite the common use of codeine products to manage postpartum pain, reports of adverse events in infants are rare. However, some women are ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine. These women achieve higher-than-expected serum levels of codeine's active metabolite, morphine, leading to higher-than-expected levels of morphine in breast milk and potentially dangerously high serum morphine levels in their breastfed infants Therefore, maternal use of codeine can potentially lead to serious adverse reactions including death, in nursing infants. The risk of infant exposure to codeine and morphine through breast milk should be weighed against the benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and baby. Caution should be exercised when codeine is administered to a nursing woman. If a codeine containing product is selected, the lowest dose should be prescribed for the shortest period of time to achieve the desired clinical effect. Mothers using codeine should be informed about when to seek immediate medical care, and how to identify the signs and symptoms of neonatal toxicity, such as drowsiness or sedation, difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, and decreased tone, in their baby. Nursing mothers who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may also experience overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing. Prescribers should closely monitor mother-infant pairs and notify treating pediatricians about the use of codeine during breastfeeding (See Warnings – Death Related to Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Codeine to Morphine ). Pediatric Use Respiratory depression and death have occurred in children with obstructive sleep apnea who received codeine in the post-operative period following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy and had evidence of being ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine (i.e., multiple copies of the gene for cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6 or high morphine concentrations). These children may be particularly sensitive to the respiratory depressant effects of codeine that has been rapidly metabolized to morphine. Codeine-containing products are contraindicated for post-operative pain management in all pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications and Warnings ].
ADVERSE REACTIONS The most frequently observed adverse reactions include drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting. These effects seem to be more prominent in ambulatory than in non-ambulatory patients, and some of these adverse reactions may be alleviated if the patient lies down. Other adverse reactions include allergic reactions, euphoria, dysphoria, constipation, abdominal pain, pruritus, rash, thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis. At higher doses codeine has most of the disadvantages of morphine including respiratory depression.
Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Dosage should be adjusted according to severity of pain and response of the patient. The usual adult dosage is: Single Doses Maximum Range 24-Hour Dose Codeine Phosphate 15mg to 60mg 360 mg Acetaminophen 300 mg to 1000 mg 4000 mg The usual dose of codeine phosphate in children is 0.5 mg/kg. Doses may be repeated up to every 4 hours. The prescriber must determine the number of tablets per dose, and the maximum number of tablets per 24 hours, based upon the above dosage guidance. This information should be conveyed in the prescription. It should be kept in mind, however, that tolerance to codeine can develop with continued use and that the incidence of untoward effects is dose related. Adult doses of codeine higher than 60 mg fail to give commensurate relief of pain but merely prolong analgesia and are associated with an appreciably increased incidence of undesirable side effects. Equivalently high doses in children would have similar effects.
|Agency product number||GSL05Y1MN6|
|Date Last Revised||26-06-2017|
|Type||HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG|
|Marketing authorisation holder||Aphena Pharma Solutions - Tennessee, LLC|
|Warnings||WARNING: Death Related to Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Codeine to Morphine Respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received codeine following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy and had evidence of being ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine due to a CYP2D6 polymorphism. Hepatotoxicity Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product.|