Licensing authority

FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA)

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Abacavir tablets, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, are indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Abacavir, a nucleoside analogue human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. (1)

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Abacavir tablets are contraindicated in patients: who have the HLA-B*5701 allele [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. with prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. with moderate or severe hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. Presence of HLA-B*5701 allele. (4) Prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. (4) Moderate or severe hepatic impairment. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are discussed in other sections of the labeling: Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis [see Boxed Warning , Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. Immune reconstitution syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]. Fat redistribution [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]. Myocardial infarction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] . The most commonly reported adverse reactions of at least moderate intensity (incidence greater than or equal to 10%) in adult HIV-1 clinical trials were nausea, headache, malaise and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and dreams/sleep disorders. (6.1) The most commonly reported adverse reactions of at least moderate intensity (incidence greater than or equal to 5%) in pediatric HIV-1 clinical trials were fever and/or chills, nausea and vomiting, skin rashes, and ear/nose/throat infections. (6.2) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Apotex Corp., at 1-800-706-5575 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience in Adult Subjects Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Serious and Fatal Abacavir-Associated Hypersensitivity Reactions In clinical trials, serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have occurred with abacavir [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. These reactions have been characterized by 2 or more of the following signs or symptoms: (1) fever; (2) rash; (3) gastrointestinal symptoms (including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain); (4) constitutional symptoms (including generalized malaise, fatigue, or achiness); (5) respiratory symptoms (including dyspnea, cough, or pharyngitis). Almost all abacavir hypersensitivity reactions include fever and/or rash as part of the syndrome. Other signs and symptoms have included lethargy, headache, myalgia, edema, arthralgia, and paresthesia. Anaphylaxis, liver failure, renal failure, hypotension, adult respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, myolysis, and death have occurred in association with these hypersensitivity reactions. Physical findings have included lymphadenopathy, mucous membrane lesions (conjunctivitis and mouth ulcerations), and maculopapular or urticarial rash (although some patients had other types of rashes and others did not have a rash). There were reports of erythema multiforme. Laboratory abnormalities included elevated liver chemistries, elevated creatine phosphokinase, elevated creatinine, and lymphopenia, and abnormal chest x-ray findings (predominantly infiltrates, which were localized). Additional Adverse Reactions with Use of Abacavir Therapy-Naive Adults Treatment-emergent clinical adverse reactions (rated by the investigator as moderate or severe) with a greater than or equal to 5% frequency during therapy with abacavir 300 mg twice daily, lamivudine 150 mg twice daily, and efavirenz 600 mg daily compared with zidovudine 300 mg twice daily, lamivudine 150 mg twice daily, and efavirenz 600 mg daily from CNA30024 are listed in Table 2. Table 2. Treatment-Emergent (All Causality) Adverse Reactions of at Least Moderate Intensity (Grades 2 to 4, Greater than or Equal to 5% Frequency) in Therapy-Naive Adults (CNA30024a) through 48 Weeks of Treatment a This trial used double-blind ascertainment of suspected hypersensitivity reactions. During the blinded portion of the trial, suspected hypersensitivity to abacavir was reported by investigators in 9% of 324 subjects in the abacavir group and 3% of 325 subjects in the zidovudine group. b Ten (3%) cases of suspected drug hypersensitivity were reclassified as not being due to abacavir following unblinding. Adverse Reaction Abacavir plus Lamivudine plus Efavirenz (n = 324) Zidovudine plus Lamivudine plus Efavirenz (n = 325) Dreams/sleep disorders 10% 10% Drug hypersensitivity 9% <1%b Headaches/migraine 7% 11% Nausea 7% 11% Fatigue/malaise 7% 10% Diarrhea 7% 6% Rashes 6% 12% Abdominal pain/gastritis/ gastrointestinal signs and symptoms 6% 8% Depressive disorders 6% 6% Dizziness 6% 6% Musculoskeletal pain 6% 5% Bronchitis 4% 5% Vomiting 2% 9% Treatment-emergent clinical adverse reactions (rated by the investigator as moderate or severe) with a greater than or equal to 5% frequency during therapy with abacavir 300 mg twice daily, lamivudine 150 mg twice daily, and zidovudine 300 mg twice daily compared with indinavir 800 mg 3 times daily, lamivudine 150 mg twice daily, and zidovudine 300 mg twice daily from CNA3005 are listed in Table 3. Table 3. Treatment-Emergent (All Causality) Adverse Reactions of at Least Moderate Intensity (Grades 2 to 4, Greater than or Equal to 5% Frequency) in Therapy-Naive Adults (CNA3005) through 48 Weeks of Treatment Adverse Reaction Abacavir plus Lamivudine/Zidovudine (n = 262) Indinavir plus Lamivudine/Zidovudine (n = 264) Nausea 19% 17% Headache 13% 9% Malaise and fatigue 12% 12% Nausea and vomiting 10% 10% Hypersensitivity reaction 8% 2% Diarrhea 7% 5% Fever and/or chills 6% 3% Depressive disorders 6% 4% Musculoskeletal pain 5% 7% Skin rashes 5% 4% Ear/nose/throat infections 5% 4% Viral respiratory infections 5% 5% Anxiety 5% 3% Renal signs/symptoms <1% 5% Pain (non-site-specific) <1% 5% Five subjects receiving abacavir in CNA3005 experienced worsening of pre-existing depression compared with none in the indinavir arm. The background rates of pre-existing depression were similar in the 2 treatment arms. Abacavir Once Daily versus Abacavir Twice Daily (CNA30021) Treatment-emergent clinical adverse reactions (rated by the investigator as at least moderate) with a greater than or equal to 5% frequency during therapy with abacavir 600 mg once daily or abacavir 300 mg twice daily, both in combination with lamivudine 300 mg once daily and efavirenz 600 mg once daily from CNA30021, were similar. For hypersensitivity reactions, subjects receiving abacavir once daily showed a rate of 9% in comparison with a rate of 7% for subjects receiving abacavir twice daily. However, subjects receiving abacavir 600 mg once daily experienced a significantly higher incidence of severe drug hypersensitivity reactions and severe diarrhea compared with subjects who received abacavir 300 mg twice daily. Five percent (5%) of subjects receiving abacavir 600 mg once daily had severe drug hypersensitivity reactions compared with 2% of subjects receiving abacavir 300 mg twice daily. Two percent (2%) of subjects receiving abacavir 600 mg once daily had severe diarrhea while none of the subjects receiving abacavir 300 mg twice daily had this event. Laboratory Abnormalities Laboratory abnormalities (Grades 3 to 4) in therapy-naive adults during therapy with abacavir 300 mg twice daily, lamivudine 150 mg twice daily, and efavirenz 600 mg daily compared with zidovudine 300 mg twice daily, lamivudine 150 mg twice daily, and efavirenz 600 mg daily from CNA30024 are listed in Table 4. Table 4. Laboratory Abnormalities (Grades 3 to 4) in Therapy-Naive Adults (CNA30024) through 48 Weeks of Treatment ULN = Upper limit of normal. n = Number of subjects assessed. Grade 3/4 Laboratory Abnormalities Abacavir plus Lamivudine plus Efavirenz (n = 324) Zidovudine plus Lamivudine plus Efavirenz (n = 325) Elevated CPK (>4 X ULN) 8% 8% Elevated ALT (>5 X ULN) 6% 6% Elevated AST (>5 X ULN) 6% 5% Hypertriglyceridemia (>750 mg/dL) 6% 5% Hyperamylasemia (>2 X ULN) 4% 5% Neutropenia (ANC <750/mm3) 2% 4% Anemia (Hgb ≤6.9 gm/dL) <1% 2% Thrombocytopenia (Platelets <50,000/mm3) 1% <1% Leukopenia (WBC ≤1,500/mm3) <1% 2% Laboratory abnormalities in CNA3005 are listed in Table 5. Table 5. Treatment-Emergent Laboratory Abnormalities (Grades 3 to 4) in CNA3005 ULN = Upper limit of normal. n = Number of subjects assessed. Grade 3/4 Laboratory Abnormalities Abacavir plus Lamivudine/Zidovudine (n = 262) Indinavir plus Lamivudine/Zidovudine (n = 264) Elevated CPK (>4 x ULN) 18 (7%) 18 (7%) ALT (>5.0 x ULN) 16 (6%) 16 (6%) Neutropenia (<750/mm3) 13 (5%) 13 (5%) Hypertriglyceridemia (>750 mg/dL) 5 (2%) 3 (1%) Hyperamylasemia (>2.0 x ULN) 5 (2%) 1 (<1%) Hyperglycemia (>13.9 mmol/L) 2 (<1%) 2 (<1%) Anemia (Hgb ≤6.9 g/dL) 0 (0%) 3 (1%) The frequencies of treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities were comparable between treatment groups in CNA30021. 6.2 Clinical Trials Experience in Pediatric Subjects Therapy-Experienced Pediatric Subjects (Twice-Daily Dosing) Treatment-emergent clinical adverse reactions (rated by the investigator as moderate or severe) with a greater than or equal to 5% frequency during therapy with abacavir 8 mg per kg twice daily, lamivudine 4 mg per kg twice daily, and zidovudine 180 mg per m2 twice daily compared with lamivudine 4 mg per kg twice daily and zidovudine 180 mg per m2 twice daily from CNA3006 are listed in Table 6. Table 6. Treatment-Emergent (All Causality) Adverse Reactions of at Least Moderate Intensity (Grades 2 to 4, Greater than or Equal to 5% Frequency) in Therapy-Experienced Pediatric Subjects (CNA3006) through 16 Weeks of Treatment Adverse Reaction Abacavir plus Lamivudine plus Zidovudine (n = 102) Lamivudine plus Zidovudine (n = 103) Fever and/or chills 9% 7% Nausea and vomiting 9% 2% Skin rashes 7% 1% Ear/nose/throat infections 5% 1% Pneumonia 4% 5% Headache 1% 5% Laboratory Abnormalities In CNA3006, laboratory abnormalities (anemia, neutropenia, liver function test abnormalities, and CPK elevations) were observed with similar frequencies as in a trial of therapy-naive adults (CNA30024). Mild elevations of blood glucose were more frequent in pediatric subjects receiving abacavir (CNA3006) as compared with adult subjects (CNA30024). Other Adverse Events In addition to adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities reported in Tables 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, other adverse reactions observed in the expanded access program were pancreatitis and increased GGT. Additional pediatric use information for patients aged 3 months and above is approved for ViiV Healthcare Company’s ZIAGEN® (abacavir sulfate) tablets and oral solution. However, due to ViiV Healthcare Company’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information. 6.3 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postmarketing use of abacavir. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposures. Body as a Whole Redistribution/accumulation of body fat. Cardiovascular Myocardial infarction. Hepatic Lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Skin Suspected Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported in patients receiving abacavir primarily in combination with medications known to be associated with SJS and TEN, respectively. Because of the overlap of clinical signs and symptoms between hypersensitivity to abacavir and SJS and TEN, and the possibility of multiple drug sensitivities in some patients, abacavir should be discontinued and not restarted in such cases. There have also been reports of erythema multiforme with abacavir use [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Before initiating abacavir, screen for the HLA-B*5701 allele. (2.1) Adults: 600 mg daily, administered as either 300 mg twice daily or 600 mg once daily. (2.2) Pediatric Patients Aged 3 Months and Older: Administered either once or twice daily. Dose should be calculated on body weight (kg) and should not exceed 600 mg daily. (2.3) Patients with Hepatic Impairment: Mild hepatic impairment – 200 mg twice daily. (2.4) 2.1 Screening for HLA-B*5701 Allele prior to Starting Abacavir Screen for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating therapy with abacavir [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 2.2 Recommended Dosage for Adult Patients The recommended dosage of abacavir tablets for adults is 600 mg daily, administered orally as either 300 mg twice daily or 600 mg once daily, in combination with other antiretroviral agents. 2.3 Recommended Dosage for Pediatric Patients The recommended dosage of abacavir oral solution in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients aged 3 months and older is 8 mg per kg orally twice daily (up to a maximum of 600 mg daily) in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Abacavir is also available as a scored tablet for HIV-1-infected pediatric patients weighing greater than or equal to 14 kg for whom a solid dosage form is appropriate. Before prescribing abacavir tablets, children should be assessed for the ability to swallow tablets. If a child is unable to reliably swallow abacavir tablets, the oral solution formulation should be prescribed. The recommended oral dosage of abacavir tablets for HIV-1-infected pediatric patients is presented in Table 1. Table 1. Dosing Recommendations for Abacavir Tablets in Pediatric Patients Weight (kg) Twice-Daily Dosing Regimen Total Daily Dose AM Dose PM Dose 14 to <20 ½ tablet (150 mg) ½ tablet (150 mg) 300 mg ≥20 to <25 ½ tablet (150 mg) 1 tablet (300 mg) 450 mg ≥25 1 tablet (300 mg) 1 tablet (300 mg) 600 mg Additional pediatric use information for patients aged 3 months and above is approved for ViiV Healthcare Company’s ZIAGEN® (abacavir sulfate) tablets and oral solution. However, due to ViiV Healthcare Company’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information. 2.4 Recommended Dosage for Patients with Hepatic Impairment The recommended dose of abacavir tablets in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A) is 200 mg twice daily. To enable dose reduction, abacavir oral solution (10 mL twice daily) should be used for the treatment of these patients. The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir have not been established in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment; therefore, abacavir tablets are contraindicated in these patients.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Lactation: Women infected with HIV should be instructed not to breastfeed due to potential for HIV transmission. (8.2) Additional pediatric use information for patients aged 3 months and above is approved for ViiV Healthcare Company’s ZIAGEN® (abacavir sulfate) tablets and oral solution. However, due to ViiV Healthcare Company’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information. 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to abacavir during pregnancy. Healthcare Providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263. Risk Summary Available data from the APR show no difference in the overall risk of birth defects for abacavir compared with the background rate for birth defects of 2.7% in the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) reference population [see Data]. The APR uses the MACDP as the U.S. reference population for birth defects in the general population. The MACDP evaluates women and infants from a limited geographic area and does not include outcomes for births that occurred at less than 20 weeks gestation. The rate of miscarriage is not reported in the APR. The estimated background rate of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies in the U.S. general population is 15% to 20%. The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of abacavir to pregnant rats during organogenesis resulted in fetal malformations and other embryonic and fetal toxicities at exposures 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended clinical daily dose. However, no adverse developmental effects were observed following oral administration of abacavir to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis, at exposures approximately 9 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended clinical dose [see Data]. Data Human Data Based on prospective reports to the APR of over 2,000 exposures to abacavir during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 1,000 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for abacavir compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of defects in live births was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.0% to 4.1%) following first trimester exposure to abacavir-containing regimens and 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9% to 3.7%) following second/third trimester exposure to abacavir-containing regimens. Abacavir has been shown to cross the placenta and concentrations in neonatal plasma at birth were essentially equal to those in maternal plasma at delivery [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Animal Data Abacavir was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 100, 300, and 1,000 mg per kg per day) and rabbits (at 125, 350, or 700 mg per kg per day) during organogenesis (on gestation Days 6 through 17 and 6 through 20, respectively). Fetal malformations (increased incidences of fetal anasarca and skeletal malformations) or developmental toxicity (decreased fetal body weight and crown-rump length) were observed in rats at doses up to 1,000 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures approximately 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended daily dose. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 100 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) 3.5 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. In a fertility and early embryo-fetal development study conducted in rats (at 60, 160, or 500 mg per kg per day), embryonic and fetal toxicities (increased resorptions, decreased fetal body weights) or toxicities to the offspring (increased incidence of stillbirth and lower body weights) occurred at doses up to 500 mg per kg per day. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 60 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 4 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Studies in pregnant rats showed that abacavir is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. In pregnant rabbits, no developmental toxicities and no increases in fetal malformations occurred at up to the highest dose evaluated, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 9 times the human exposure at the recommended dose. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Abacavir is present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of abacavir on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV- positive infants), and (3) serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving abacavir. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of abacavir have been established in pediatric patients aged 3 months and older. Use of abacavir is supported by pharmacokinetic trials and evidence from adequate and well-controlled trials of abacavir in adults and pediatric subjects [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Adverse Reactions (6.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.2)]. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical trials of abacavir did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration of abacavir in elderly patients reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. 8.6 Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function A dose reduction is required for patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A) [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir have not been established in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment; therefore, abacavir is contraindicated in these patients [see Contraindications (4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Methadone: An increased methadone dose may be required in a small number of patients. (7.1) 7.1 Methadone In a trial of 11 HIV-1-infected subjects receiving methadone-maintenance therapy with 600 mg of abacavir twice daily (twice the currently recommended dose), oral methadone clearance increased [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. This alteration will not result in a methadone dose modification in the majority of patients; however, an increased methadone dose may be required in a small number of patients.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA201570
Agency product number J220T4J9Q2
Orphan designation
Product NDC 60505-3583
Date Last Revised 28-04-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Marketing authorisation holder Apotex Corp
Warnings WARNING: HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS, AND LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS Hypersensitivity Reactions Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, with multiple organ involvement, have occurred with abacavir. Patients who carry the HLA-B*5701 allele are at a higher risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir; although, hypersensitivity reactions have occurred in patients who do not carry the HLA-B*5701 allele [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Abacavir is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir and in HLA-B*5701-positive patients [see Contraindications ( 4), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)] . All patients should be screened for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating therapy with abacavir or reinitiation of therapy with abacavir, unless patients have a previously documented HLA-B*5701 allele assessment. Discontinue abacavir immediately if a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, regardless of HLA-B*5701 status and even when other diagnoses are possible [see Contraindications ( 4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] . Following a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, NEVER restart abacavir tablets or any other abacavir-containing product because more severe symptoms, including death can occur within hours. Similar severe reactions have also occurred rarely following the reintroduction of abacavir-containing products in patients who have no history of abacavir hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues and other antiretrovirals. Discontinue abacavir if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity occur [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2)]. WARNING: HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS, and LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Hypersensitivity Reactions Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have occurred with abacavir. ( 5.1) Hypersensitivity to abacavir is a multi-organ clinical syndrome. (5.1) Patients who carry the HLA-B*5701 allele are at a higher risk of experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. ( 5.1) Abacavir is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir and in HLA-B*5701-positive patients. (4) Discontinue abacavir as soon as a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected. Regardless of HLA-B*5701 status, permanently discontinue abacavir if hypersensitivity cannot be ruled out, even when other diagnoses are possible. (5.1) Following a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, NEVER restart abacavir tablets or any other abacavir-containing product. (5.1) Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues. (5.2)