Angeli P, Gines P, Wong F, Bernardi M, Boyer TD, Gerbes A, et al. Diagnosis and management of acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis: revised consensus recommendations of the International Club of Ascites. Gut. 2015;64:531-7.

Angus DC, van der Poll T. Severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2063.

Anthon CT, Müller RB, Haase N, Hjortrup PB, Møller K, Lange T, et al. Effects of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 vs. Ringer's acetate on cytokine levels in severe sepsis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2017;61:904-13.

Bayer O, Reinhart K, Sakr Y, Kabisch B, Kohl M, Riedemann NC, et al. Renal effects of synthetic colloids and crystalloids in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective sequential comparison. Crit Care Med 2011;39:1335-42.

Bellmann R, Feistritzer C, Wiedermann CJ. Effect of molecular weight and substitution on tissue uptake of hydroxyethyl starch: a meta-analysis of clinical studies. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2012;51:225-36.

Bernardi M, Caraceni P, Navickis RJ, Wilkes MM. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Hepatology. 2012;55:1172-81.

Bernardi M, Ricci CS, Zaccherini G. Role of human albumin in the management of complications of liver cirrhosis. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2014;4:302-11.

Blumberg N, Cholette JM, Pietropaoli AP, Phipps R, Spinelli S, Eaton MP, et al. 0.9% NaCl (Normal Saline) - Perhaps not so normal after all? Transfus Apher Sci. 2018;57:127–31.

Boer C, Bossers SM, Koning NJ et al. Choice of fluid type: physiological concepts and perioperative indications. Br J Anaesth. 2018;120:384-396.

Boismramé-Helmes J, Kremer H, Schini-Kerth V, Meziani F. Endothelial dysfunction in sepsis. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2013;11:150–60.

Brunkhorst FM, Engel C, Bloos F, Meier-Hellmann A, Ragaller M, Weiler N, et al. Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:125-39.

Bucsics T, Hoffman S, Grünberger J, Schoder M, Matzek W, Stadlmann A, et al. ePTFE-TIPS vs repetitive LVP plus albumin for the treatment of refractory ascites in patients with cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2018;38:1036–44.

Bunn F, Roberts I, Tasker R, Akpa E. Hypertonic versus near isotonic crystalloid for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004:CD002045.

Caironi P, Tognoni G, Masson S, Fumagalli R, Pesenti A, Romero M, et al. Albumin replacement in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1412-21.

Caraceni P, Angeli P, Prati D, Bernardi M; Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF), Liumbruno GM, et al. AISF-SIMTI position paper: the appropriate use of albumin in patients with liver cirrhosis. Blood Transfus. 2016;14:8-22.

Charpentier J, Mira J-P. Efficacy and tolerance of hyperoncotic albumin administration in septic shock patients: the EARSS study. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37:Suppl 1:S115.

De Crescenzo C, Gorouhi F, Salcedo ES, Galante JM. Prehospital hypertonic fluid resuscitation for trauma patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017;82:956-62.

de la Cruz KI, Bakaeen FG, Wang XL, Huh J, LeMaire SA, Coselli JS, et al. Hypoalbuminemia and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass: a propensity score analysis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91:671-5.

Duan L, Hu GH, Jiang M, Zhang CL, Duan YY. Association of hypoalbuminemia with acute kidney injury in children after cardiac surgery. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2018;20:475–80.

Engelman DT, Adams DH, Byrne JG, Aranki SF, Collins JJ Jr, Couper GS, et al. Impact of body mass index and albumin on morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999;118:866-73.

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2010;53:397-417.

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2018;69:406–60.

Editors-in-Chief.  Editors-in-Chief Statement Regarding Published Clinical Trials Conducted without IRB Approval by Joachim Boldt. Minerva Anestesiol. 2011; 77:562-3.

Ernest D, Belzberg AS, Dodek PM. Distribution of normal saline and 5% albumin infusions in cardiac surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:2299-302.

European Medicines Agency (EMA). Hydroxyethyl starch solutions for infusion. October 2013; Available from: (Accessed 15th June 2016).

European Medicines Agency (EMA). Hydroxyethyl starch solutions: CMDh introduces new measures to protect patients. August 2018; Available from: (Accessed 23rd August 2018).

Evans TW. Review article: albumin as a drug—biological effects of albumin unrelated to oncotic pressure. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16 Suppl 5:6-11.

Fanali G, di Masi A, Trezza V, Marino M, Fasano M, Ascenzi P. Human serum albumin: from bench to bedside. Mol Aspects Med. 2012;33:209-90.

Fasolato S, Angeli P, Dallagnese L, Maresio G, Zola E, Mazza E, et al. Renal failure and bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis: epidemiology and clinical features. Hepatology. 2007;45:223-9.

Ferrer R, Mateu X, Maseda E, Yébenes JC, Aldeocoa C, De Haro C, et al. Non-oncotic properties of albumin. A multidisciplinary vision about the implications for critically ill patients. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018;11:125-37.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA Safety Communication: Boxed Warning on increased mortality and severe renal injury, and additional warning on risk of bleeding, for use of hydroxyethyl starch solutions in some settings. November 2013; Available from: (Accessed 15th June 2016).

Fritz HG, Brandes H, Bredle DL, Bitterlich A, Vollandt R, Specht M, et al. Post-operative hypoalbuminaemia and procalcitonin elevation for prediction of outcome in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003;47:1276-83.

Gatta A, Verardo A, Bolognesi M. Hypoalbuminemia. Intern Emerg Med. 2012;7 Suppl 3:S193-9.

Gattas DJ, Dan A, Myburgh J, Billot L, Lo S, Finfer S; et al. Fluid resuscitation with 6 % hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4 and 130/0.42) in acutely ill patients: systematic review of effects on mortality and treatment with renal replacement therapy. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:558-68.

Gluud LL, Christensen K, Christensen E, Krag A. Systematic review of randomized trials on vasoconstrictor drugs for hepatorenal syndrome. Hepatology. 2010;51:576-84.

Goto T, Yoshida K, Tsugawa Y, Filbin MR, Camargo CA Jr, Hasegawa K. Mortality trends in U.S. adults with septic shock, 2005-2011: a serial cross-sectional analysis of nationally-representative data. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:294.

Groeneveld AB, Navickis RJ, Wilkes MM. Update on the comparative safety of colloids: a systematic review of clinical studies. Ann Surg. 2011;253:470-83.

Haase N, Perner A, Hennings LI, Siegemund M, Lauridsen B, Wetterslev M, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.38-0.45 versus crystalloid or albumin in patients with sepsis: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. BMJ. 2013;346:f839.

Hammond NE, Taylor C, Finfer S, Machado FR, An Y, Billot L et al. Patterns of intravenous fluid resuscitation use in adult intensive care patients between 2007 and 2014: An international cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2017;12:e0176292.

Hariri G, Joffre J, Deryckere S, Bigé N, Dumas G, Baudel JL, et al. Albumin infusion improves endothelial function in septic shock patients: a pilot study. Intensive Care Med. 2018;44:669–71.

Hecht-Dolnik M, Barkan H, Taharka A, Loftus J. Hetastarch increases the risk of bleeding complications in patients after off-pump coronary bypass surgery: a randomized clinical trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138:703-11.

Holder AL, Gupta N, Lulaj E, Furgiuele M, Hidalgo I, Jones MP, et al. Predictors of early progression to severe sepsis or shock among emergency department patients with nonsevere sepsis. Int J Emerg Med. 2016;9:10. [Epub 2016 Feb 24].

Jacob M, Chappell D, Hofmann-Kiefer K, Helfen T, Schuelke A, Jacob B, et al. The intravascular volume effect of Ringer's lactate is below 20%: a prospective study in humans. Crit Care. 2012;16:R86.

Jacob M, Fellahi JL, Chappell D, Kurz A. The impact of hydroxyethyl starches in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2014;18:656.

Jiang L, Jiang S, Zhang M, Zheng Z, Ma Y. Albumin versus other fluids for fluid resuscitation in patients with sepsis: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9:e114666.

Jung DM, Ahn HJ, Yang M, Kim JA, Kim DK, Lee SM, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch is associated with early postoperative delirium in patients undergoing esophagectomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018;155:1333–43.

Katz LM, Young P, Bassett MB, Collins L. Open letter; Re: Docket No. 2017-P-0867. February 2018; Available from: (Accessed 23rd August 2018).

Kingeter AJ, Raghunathan K, Munson SH, Hayashida DK, Zhang X, Iyengar S, et al. Association between albumin administration and survival in cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study. Can J Anaesth. 2018; doi: 10.1007/s12630-018-1181-4 [ePub ahead of print].

Lee EH, Chin JH, Choi DK, Hwang BY, Choo SJ, Song JG, et al. Postoperative hypoalbuminemia is associated with outcome in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2011;25:462-8.

Lee EH, Kim WJ, Kim JY, Chin JH, Choi DK, Sim JY, et al. Effect of exogenous albumin on the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery with a preoperative albumin level of less than 4.0 g/dl. Anesthesiology. 2016;124:1001-11.

Lee JH, Jung JY, Park SW, Song IK, Kim EH, Kim HS, et al. Risk factors of acute kidney injury in children after cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2018; doi: 10.1111/aas.13210 [ePub ahead of print].

Leisman DE, Goldman C, Doerfler ME, Masick KD, Dries S, Hamilton E et al. Patterns and Outcomes Associated With Timeliness of Initial Crystalloid Resuscitation in a Prospective Sepsis and Septic Shock Cohort. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:1596-1606.

Lenz K, Buder R, Kapun L, Voglmayr M. Treatment and management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome: an update. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2015;8:83-100.

Lewis SR, Pritchard MW, Evans DJ, Butler AR, Alderson P, Smith AF, et al. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;8: CD000567.

Long E, Babl FE, Oakley E, Sheridan B, Duke T. Cardiac Index Changes With Fluid Bolus Therapy in Children With Sepsis-An Observational Study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19:513–8.

Martin C, Jacob M, Vicaut E, Guidet B, Van Aken H, Kurz A. Effect of waxy maize-derived hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 on renal function in surgical patients. Anesthesiology. 2013;118:387-94.

McDermid RC, Raghunathan K, Romanovsky A, Shaw AD, Bagshaw SM. Controversies in fluid therapy: Type, dose and toxicity. World J Crit Care Med. 2014;3:24-33.

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Hydroxyethyl starch intravenous infusions. December 2014; Available from: (Accessed 15th June 2016).

Min JJ, Cho HS, Jeon S, Lee JH, Lee JJ, Lee YT. Effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 on postoperative blood loss and kidney injury in off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting. A retrospective study. Medicine. 2017;96:18.

Moeller C, Fleischmann C, Thomas-Rueddel D, Vlasakov V, Rochwerg B, Theurer P, et al. How safe is gelatin? A systematic review and meta-analysis of gelatin-containing plasma expanders vs crystalloids and albumin. J Crit Care. 2016;35:75-83.

Morisaki K, Yamaoka T, Iwasa K. Risk factors for wound complications and 30-day mortality after major lower limb amputations in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Vascular. 2018;26:12–17.

Mutter TC, Ruth CA, Dart AB. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) versus other fluid therapies: effects on kidney function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013:CD007594.

Myburgh JA. Fluid resuscitation in acute medicine: what is the current situation? J Intern Med. 2015;277:58-68.

Myburgh JA, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Billot L, Cass A, Gattas D, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1901-11.

Myburgh JA, Mythen MG. Resuscitation fluids. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1243-51.

Nanda A, Reddy R, Safraz H, Salameh H, Singal AK. Pharmacological Therapies for Hepatorenal Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018;52:360–7.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital. NICE guidelines [CG174]. December 2013; Available from: (Accessed 29th August 2018).

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Intravenous fluid therapy in children and young people in hospital. NICE guidelines [NG29]. December 2015; Available from: (Accessed 15th June 2016). 

Navasa M, Follo A, Filella X, Jiménez W, Francitorra A, Planas R, et al. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: relationship with the development of renal impairment and mortality. Hepatology. 1998;27:1227-32.

Navickis RJ, Haynes GR, Wilkes MM. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;144:223-30.

Navickis RJ, Haynes GR, Wilkes MM. Tetrastarch in cardiac surgery: error, confounding and bias in a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Crit Care. 2015;19:187.

NCBI Structure. 1AO6: Crystal Structure of Human Serum Albumin. May 2011; Available from: (Accessed 21st June 2016). 

Niemi TT, Suojaranta-Ylinen RT, Kukkonen SI, Kuitunen AH. Gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch, but not albumin, impair hemostasis after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:998-1006.

Nolan JP, Mythen MG. Hydroxyethyl Starch. Here Today, Gone Tomorrow. Br J Anaesth. 2013;111:321-4.

Oh HW, Lee JH, Kim HC, Kim EH, Song IK, Kim HS, et al. The effect of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) on acute kidney injury in paediatric cardiac surgery: a prospective, randomised trial. Anaesthesia. 2018;73:205–15.

Patel A, Waheed U, Brett SJ. Randomised trials of 6% tetrastarch (hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or 0.42) for severe sepsis reporting mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:811-22.

Perel P, Roberts I, Ker K. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD000567.

Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB, Tenhunen J, Klemenzson G, Åneman A, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:124-34.

Quinlan GJ, Martin GS, Evans TW. Albumin: biochemical properties and therapeutic potential. Hepatology. 2005;41:1211-9.

Regulations Gov. Requests that the FDA immediately require the removal from the market of HES IV solutions. 2017; Available from: (Accessed 23rd August 2018).

Reinhart K, Perner A, Sprung CL, Jaeschke R, Schortgen F, Groeneveld AB, et al. Consensus statement of the ESICM task force on colloid volume therapy in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2012;38:368-83.

Reverter E, Poch E, Fernández J. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:1949.

Rich MW, Keller AJ, Schechtman KB, Marshall WG, Kouchoukos NT. Increased complications and prolonged hospital stay in elderly cardiac surgical patients with low serum albumin. Am J Cardiol. 1989;63:714–8.

Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, Levy MM, Antonelli M, Ferrer R, Kumar A, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:486-552.

Rochwerg B, Alhazzani W, Sindi A, Heels-Ansdell D, Thabane L, Fox-Robichaud A, et al. Fluid resuscitation in sepsis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:347-55.

Romanelli RG, La Villa G, Barletta G, Vizzutti F, Lanini F, Arena U, et al. Long-term albumin infusion improves survival in patients with cirrhosis and ascites: an unblinded randomized trial. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:1403-7.

Runyon BA. Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis: update 2012. 2012; Available from: (Accessed 28th June, 2016).

Runyon BA; AASLD Practice Guidelines Committee. Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis: an update. Hepatology. 2009;49:2087-107.

SAFE Study Investigators. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2247-56.

SAFE Study Investigators, Finfer S, McEvoy S, Bellomo R, McArthur C, Myburgh J, et al. Impact of albumin compared to saline on organ function and mortality of patients with severe sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37:86-96.

Salerno F, Gerbes A, Ginès P, Wong F, Arroyo V. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. Gut. 2007;56:1310-8.

Salerno F, Navickis RJ, Wilkes MM. Albumin infusion improves outcomes of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11:123-30.e1.

Salerno F, Navickis RJ, Wilkes MM. Albumin treatment regimen for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: a dose-response meta-analysis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2015;15:167.

Schramko AA, Suojaranta-Ylinen RT, Kuitunen AH, Kukkonen SI, Niemi TT. Rapidly degradable hydroxyethyl starch solutions impair blood coagulation after cardiac surgery: a prospective randomized trial. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:30-6.

Schumacher J, Klotz K-F. Fluid therapy in cardiac surgery patients. Appl Cardiopul Pathophysiol. 2009;13:138-42.

Sedrakyan A, Gondek K, Paltiel D, Elefteriades JA. Volume expansion with albumin decreases mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Chest. 2003;123:1853-7.

Self WH, Semler MW, Wanderer JP, Wang L, Byrne DW, Collins SP, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Noncritically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:819–28.

Semler MW, Self WH, Wanderer JP, Ehrenfeld JM, Wang L, Byrne DW, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:829–39.

Serpa Neto A, Veelo DP, Peireira VG, de Assunção MS, Manetta JA, Espósito DC, et al. Fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starches in patients with sepsis is associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney injury and use of renal replacement therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. J Crit Care. 2014;29:185.e1-7.

Shankar-Hari M, Phillips GS, Levy ML, Seymour CW, Liu VX, Deutschman CS, et al. Developing a New Definition and Assessing New Clinical Criteria for Septic Shock: For the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016;315:775-87.

Shaw A, Raghunathan K. Fluid management in cardiac surgery: colloid or crystalloid? Anesthesiol Clin. 2013;31:269-80.

Shaw AD, Bagshaw SM, Goldstein SL, Scherer LA, Duan M, Schermer CR, et al. Major complications, mortality, and resource utilization after open abdominal surgery: 0.9% saline compared to Plasma-Lyte. Ann Surg. 2012; 255: 821-9.

Skhirtladze K, Base EM, Lassnigg A, Kaider A, Linke S, Dworschak M, et al. Comparison of the effects of albumin 5%, hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 6%, and Ringer's lactate on blood loss and coagulation after cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:255-64.

Shroyer AL, Grover FL, Hattler B, Collins JF, McDonald GO, Kozora E, et al. On-pump versus off-pump coronary-artery bypass surgery. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1827-37.

Spoelstra-de Man AME,  Smorenberg A, Groeneveld ABJ, et al. Different effects of fluid loading with saline, gelatine, hydroxyethyl starch or albumin solutions on acid-base status in the critically ill. PLoS ONE;2017;12:e0174507.

Sugio S, Kashima A, Mochizuki S, Noda M, Kobayashi K. Crystal structure of human serum albumin at 2.5 A resolution. Protein Eng. 1999;12:439-46.

Taverna M, Marie AL, Mira JP, Guidet B. Specific antioxidant properties of human serum albumin. Ann Intensive Care. 2013;3:4.

Thomas-Rueddel DO, Vlasakov V, Reinhart K, Jaeschke R, Rueddel H, Hutagalung R, et al. Safety of gelatin for volume resuscitation -a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2012;38:1134-42.

Van Haren F. Personalised fluid resuscitation in the ICU: still a fluid concept? Critical Care 2017;21(Suppl 3):313.

Wiedermann CJ, Wiedermann W, Joannidis M. Hypoalbuminemia and acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis of observational clinical studies. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:1657-65.

Wiedermann CJ, Joannidis M. Chloride-restrictive fluid administration and incidence of acute kidney injury. JAMA. 2013;309:543.

Wiedermann CJ, Joannidis M. Albumin Replacement in Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:83.

Westphal M, James MF, Kozek-Langenecker S, Stocker R, Guidet B, Van Aken H. Hydroxyethyl starches: different products--different effects. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:187-202.

Wu MC, Liao TY, Lee EM, Chen YS, Hsu WT, Lee MG, et al. Administration of hypertonic solutions for hemorrhagic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Anesth Analg. 2017;125(5):1549-57.

Xu JY, Chen QH, Xie JF, Pan C, Liu SQ, Huang LW, et al. Comparison of the effects of albumin and crystalloid on mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Crit Care. 2014; 18:702.

Yunos NM, Bellomo R, Bailey M. Chloride-restrictive fluid administration and incidence of acute kidney injury--reply. JAMA. 2013;309:543-4.

Yunos NM, Bellomo R, Hegarty C, Story D, Ho L, Bailey M. Association between a chloride-liberal vs chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration strategy and kidney injury in critically ill adults. JAMA. 2012;308:1566-72.

Zarychanski R, Abou-Setta AM, Turgeon AF, Houston BL, McIntyre L, Marshall JC, et al. Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;309:678-88.

Zarychanski R, Turgeon AF, Fergusson DA, Cook DJ, Hébert P, Bagshaw SM, et al. Renal outcomes and mortality following hydroxyethyl starch resuscitation of critically ill patients: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Open Med 2009;3:E196-209.

Zhou FH, Liu C, Mao Z, Ma PL. Normal saline for intravenous fluid therapy in critically ill patients. Chin J Traumatol. 2018;21:11–15.



Explore the Fluid Management Knowledge Centre, containing medical information for HCPs about fluid management including useful links, relevant publications and interactive resources.

Publication Digests

Publication Digests

The Publication Digests section of the Knowledge Centre is an area dedicated to providing analysis and commentary of related published literature. Recent publications will be reviewed and distilled into key learning points which you can access below.

Congress Highlights

Congress Highlights

This page contains key discussions and videos from the United Europe Gastroenterology Week (UEGW), which took place in Berlin in 2013.



Explore our helpful links, downloadable resources and educational slides to improve the breadth and width of your knowledge.