Treatment References

Abajian M, Curto-Barredo L, Krause K, Santamaria E, Izquierdi I, Church MK, et al. Rupatadine 20 mg and 40 mg are effective in reducing the symptoms of chronic cold urticaria. Acta Derm Venereol. 2016;96:56–9.

Aberer W, Kränke B. One-year treatment of chronic urticaria with mizolastine: efficacy and safety. J Eur Acad Demeratol Venereol. 2000; 14:83–90. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001; 15:77–8.

Anuradha P, Maiti R, Jyothirmai J, Mujeebuddin O, Anuradha M. Loratadine versus levocetirizine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: A comparative study of efficacy and safety. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010; 42(1):12–6.

Asero R. Chronic unremitting urticaria: is the use of antihistamines above the licensed dose effective? A preliminary study of cetirizine at licensed and above-licensed doses. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007 Jan;32(1):34–8.

Asero R & Tedeschi A. Usefulness of a short course of oral prednisone in antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria: a retrospective analysis. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20(5):386–90.

Asero R, Tedeschi A, Cugno M. Treatment of refractory chronic urticaria: current and future therapeutic options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013 Dec;14(6):481–8.

Augustin M and Ehrle S. Safety and efficacy of desloratadine in chronic idiopathic urticaria in clinical practice: an observational study of 9246 patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009; 23:292–9.

Bachert C, Maurer M. Safety and efficacy of desloratadine in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis or chronic urticaria: results of four postmarketing surveillance studies. Clin Drug Investig. 2010;30(2):109–22.

Belaich S, Bruttmann G, DeGreef H, Lachapelle JM, Paul E, Pedrali P, et al. Comparative effects of loratadine and terfenadine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Ann Allergy. 1990; 64(2):191–4.

Brostoff J, Fitzharris P, Dunmore C, Theron M, Blondin P. Efficacy of mizolastine, a new antihistamine, compared with placebo in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Allergy. 1996; 51(5):320–5.

Bryan J. Despite its problems, terfenadine did set a new standard for hay fever treatment. 2011. The Pharmaceutical Journal. Available at http://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/news-and-analysis/despite-its-problems-terfenadine-did-set-a-new-standard-for-hay-fever-treatment/11087400.article.

Casale TB, Blaiss MS, Gelfand E, Gilmore T, Harvey PD, Hindmarch I, et al. First do no harm: managing antihistamine impairment in patients with allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 May;111(5):S835–42.

Casale T, Maurer M, Saini S, Bernstein J, Kaplan A, Rosén K et al. Omalizumab reduced symptoms and improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with refractory chronic spontaneous/idiopathic urticaria (CSU/CIU) in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trials: a post-hoc analysis of percent change from baseline. Abstract, EAACI congress 2014.

Church MK, Maurer M, Simons FE, Bindslev-Jensen C, van Cauwenberge P, Bousquet J, et al. Risk of first-generation H(1)-antihistamines: a GA(2)LEN position paper. Allergy. 2010 Apr;65(4):459–66.

Dakhale GN, Shinde AT, Mahatme MS, Hiware SK, Mishra DB, Mukhi JI, et al. Clinical effectiveness and safety of cetirizine versus rupatadine in chronic spontaneous urticaria: a randomized, double-blind, 6-week trial. Int J Dermatol. 2014; 53:643–9.Deza G, Bertolín-Colilla M, Pujol RM, Curto-Barredo L, Soto D, García M, et al. Basophil FcεRI Expression in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Potential Immunological Predictor of Response to Omalizumab Therapy. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017 Jun 9;97(6):698–704.

Dhar S, Varghese ST, Georges G. Assessing the therapeutic benefits of antihistamines for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria – a requirement for well-designed comparative clinical studies. J Dermatolog Treat. 2005; 16:176–7.

Dubertret L, Murrieta Aguttes M, Tonet J. Efficacy and safety of mizolastine 10 mg in a placebo-controlled comparison with loratadine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: results of the MILOR Study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Vernerol. 1999; 12(1):16–24.

Dubertret L, Zalupca L, Cristodoulo T, Benea V, Medina I, Fantin S, et al. Once-daily rupatadine improves the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Dermatol. 2007; 17(3):1–6.

Eghrari-Sabet J, Sher E, Kavati A, Pilon D, Zhdanava M, Balp MM, et al. Real-world use of omalizumab in patients with chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria in the United States. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2018;39(3):191–200.

European Medicines Agency. Xolair. 2014. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Summary_of_opinion/human/000606/WC500160092.pdf (accessed August 2018).

Fang SY, Perng DW, Lee JY, Lin DY, Huangs CY. An open-label, multicentre study of levocetirizine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria in Taiwanese patients. Chin J Physiol. 2010;53(4):199–207.

Fexofenadine hydrochloride Summary of Product Characteristics. 2014. Available at www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/29518.

Finn AF Jr, Kaplan AP, Fretwell R, Qu R, Long J. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fexofenadine HCl in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999; 104(5):1071–8.

Garg G, Thami GP. Comparative efficacy of cetirizine and levocetirizine in chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Dermatolog Treat. 2007; 18(1):23–4.Giménez-Arnau A, Izquierdo I, Maurer M. The use of a responder analysis to identify clinically meaningful differences in chronic urticaria patients following placebo- controlled treatment with rupatadine 10 and 20 mg. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Sep;23(9):1088–91.

Genentech, 2014. FDA Approves Xolair® (omalizumab) for people with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), a form of chronic hives. Available from: https://www.gene.com/media/press-releases/14563/2014-03-21/fda-approves-xolair-omalizumab-for-peopl (accessed August 2018).

González-Núñez V, Bachert C, Mullol J. Rupatadine: global safety evaluation in allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016; 15(10):1439–48.

Giménez-Arnau A, Izquierdo I, Maurer M. The use of a responder analysis to identify clinically meaningful differences in chronic urticaria patients following placebo-controlled treatment with rupatadine 10 and 20 mg. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009; 23(9): 1088–91.

Giménez-Arnau A, Pujol RM, Ianosi S, Kaszuba A, Malbran A, Poop G, et al. Rupatadine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicentre study. Allergy. 2007; 62:539–46.

Goyal V, Gupta A, Gupta O, Lal D, Gill M. Comparative efficacy and safety of ebastine 20 mg, ebastine 10 mg and levocetirizine 5 mg in acute urticaria. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017; 11(3):WC06–WC09.

Grob JJ, Auguier P, Dreyfus I, Ortonne JP. How to prescribe antihistamines for chronic idiopathic urticaria: desloratadine daily vs PRN and quality of life. Allergy. 2009; 64(4):605–12.Handa S, Dogra S, Kumar B. Comparative efficacy of cetirizine and fexofenadine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Dermatolog Treat. 2004; 15(1):55–7.

Hindmarch I, Johnson S, Meadows R, Kirkpatrick T, Shamsi Z. The acute and sub-chronic effects of levocetirizine, cetirizine, loratadine, promethazine and placebo on cognitive function, psychomotor performance, and weal and flare. Curr Med Res Opin. 2001;17(4):241–55.

Holgate ST, Canonica GW, Simons FE, Taglialatela M, Tharp M, Timmerman H, et al. Consensus Group on New-Generation Antihistamines (CONGA): present status and recommendations. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003 Sep;33(9):1305–24.

Hong JB, Lee HC, Hu FC, Chu CY. A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group pilot study to compare the efficacy and sedative effects of desloratadine 5 mg with levocetirizine 5 mg in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010; 63(5):e100–2.

Juhlin L, Arendt C. Treatment of chronic urticaria with cetirizine dihydrochloride a non-sedating antihistamine. Br J Dermatol. 1988; 119(1):67–71.

Kalis B. Double-blind multicentre comparative study of ebastine, terfenadine and placebo in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria in adults. Drugs. 1996; 52:30–4.

Kalivas J, Breneman D, Tharp M, Bruce S, Bigby M. Urticaria: clinical efficacy of cetirizine in comparison with hydroxyzine and placebo. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990; 86:1014–8.

Kameyoshi Y, Tanaka T, Mihara S, Takahagi S, Niimi N, Hide M. Increasing the dose of cetirizine may lead to better control of chronic idiopathic urticaria: an open study of 21 patients. Br J Dermatol. 2007; 157(4):803–4.

Kaplan A, Ledford D, Ashby M, Canvin J, Zazzali JL, Conner E, et al. Omalizumab in patients with symptomatic chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria despite standard combination therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jul;132(1):101–9.

Kaplan AP, Spector SL, Meeves S, Liao Y, Varghese ST, Georges G. Once-daily fexofenadine treatment for chronic idiopathic urticaria: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005; 94(6):662–9.

Kapp A, Pichler WJ. Levocetirizine is an effective treatment in patients suffering from chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, multicenter study. Int JDermatol. 2006; 45(4):469–74.

Ke X, Kavati A, Wertz D, Huang Q, Wang L, Willey VJ, et al. Real-Wworld characteristics and treatment patterns in patients with urticaria initiating omalizumab in the United States. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2018;24(7):598–606.

Kolasani BP, Mudium R, Reddy N. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of rupatadine versus desloratadine in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;3:42–7.

Krause K, Spohr A, Zuberbier T, Church MK, Maurer M. Up-dosing with bilastine results in improved effectiveness in cold contact urticaria. Allergy. 2013 Jul;68(7):921–8.

Kulthanan K, Grityarangsan P, Sitakalin C, Charuwichitratana S, Korkij W, Anuhachoke K, et al. Multicenter study of the efficacy and safety of fexofenadine 60 mg. twice daily in 108 Thai patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001; 84(2):153–9.

Lachapelle JM, Decroix J, Henrijean A, Roquet-Gravey PP, De Swerdt A, Boonen H, et al. Desloratadine 5 mg once daily improves the quality of life of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006; 20(3):288–92.

Leyandier F, Duarte-Risselin C, Murrieta M. Comparative therapeutic effect and safety of mizolastine and loratadine in chronic idiopathic urticaria. URTILOR study group. Eur J Dermatol. 2000; 10(3):205–11.

Lorette G, Giannetti A, Pereira RS, Leyandier F, Murrieta-Aguttes M. One-year treatment of chronic urticaria with mizolastine: efficacy and safety. URTOL study group. J Eur Acad Demeratol Venereol. 2000; 14(2):83–90.

Maiti R, Jaida J, Raghavendra BN, Goud P, Ahmed I, Palani A. Rupatadine and levocetirizine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: a comparative study of efficacy and safety. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011; 10(12):1444–50.

Martinez-Escala ME, Curto-Barredo L, Carnero L, Pujol RM, Giménez-Arnau AM. Temperature thresholds in assessment of the clinical course of acquired cold contact urticaria: a prospective observational one-year study. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95:278–82.

Maurer M, Weller K, Bindslev-Jensen C, Giménez-Arnau A, Bousquet PJ, Bousquet J, et al. Unmet clinical needs in chronic spontaneous urticaria. A GA²LEN task force report. Allergy. 2011 Mar;66(3):317–30.

Maurer M, Rosén K, Hsieh HJ, Saini S, Grattan C, Gimenéz-Arnau A, et al. Omalizumab for the treatment of chronic idiopathic or spontaneous urticaria. N Engl J Med. 2013 Mar 7;368(10):924–35.

Maurer M, Church MK, Gonçalo M, Sussman G, Sánchez-Borges M. Management and treatment of chronic urticaria (CU). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Jun;29 Suppl 3:16–32.

Meltzer EO, Gillman SA. Efficacy of fexofenadine versus desloratadine in suppressing histamine-induced wheal and flare. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2007; 28(1):67–73.

Metz M, Maurer M. Rupatadine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2011; 7(1):15–20.

Metz M, Scholz E, Ferrán M, Izquierdo I, Giménez-Arnau A, Maurer M. Rupatadine and its effects on symptom control, stimulation time, and temperature thresholds in patients with acquired cold urticaria. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010 Jan;104(1):86–92.

Metz M, Weller K, Neumeister C, Izquierdo I, Bödeker R-H, Schwantes U, et al. Rupatadine in established treatment schemes improves chronic spontaneous urticaria symptoms and patients’ quality of life: a prospective, non-interventional trial. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2015; 5:217–30.

Monroe EW, Bernstein DI, Fox RW, Grabiec SV, Honsinger RW, Kalivas JT, et al. Relative efficacy and safety or loratadine, hydroxyzine, and placebo in chronic idiopathic urticaria. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992; 42(9):1119–21.

Monroe E, Finn A, Patel P, Guerrero R, Ratner P, Berstein D, et al. Efficacy and safety of desloratadine 5 mg once daily in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003; 48(4):535–41.

Monroe EW, Fox RW, Green AW, Izuno GT, Bernstein DI, Pleskow WW, et al. Efficacy and safety of loratadine (10 mg once daily) in the management of idiopathic chronic urticaria. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988. 19(1):138–9.

Nelson HS, Reynolds R, Mason J. Fexofenadine HCl is safe and effective for treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000; 84(5):517–22.

Nettis E, Colanardi MC, Barra L, Ferrannini A, Vacca A, Tursi A. Levocetirizine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomized, double-blind, plaebo-controlled study. Br J Dermatol. 2006; 154(3):533–8.

Nettis E, Delle Donne P, Di leo E, Calogiuri GF, Ferrannini A, Vacca A. Rupatadine for the treatment of urticaria. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013; 4(13):1807–13.

Ortonne JP, Grob JJ, Auguier P, Dreyfus I. Efficacy and safety of desloratadine in adults with chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, trial. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2007; 8(1):37–42.

Potter PC, Kapp A, Maurer M, Guillet G, Jian AM, Hauptmann P, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of levocetirizine 5 mg and desloratadine 5 mg in chronic idiopathic urticaria patients. Allergy. 2009; 64(4):596–604.

Ring J, Hein R, Gauger A, Bronsky E, Miller B. Once-daily desloratadine improves the signs and symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomized, double-bind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Dermatol. 2001; 40(1):72–6.

Saini SS, Bindslev-Jensen C, Maurer M, Grob JJ, Bülbül Baskan E, Bradley MS, et al. Efficacy and safety of omalizumab in patients with chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria who remain symptomatic on H1 antihistamines: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Jan;135(1):67–75.

Sànchez-Borges M, Ansotegui I, Jimenez JM, Rojo MI, Serrano C, Yañez A. Comparative efficacy of non-sedating antihistamine updosing in patients with chronic urticaria. World Allergy Organ J. 2014;7:33.

Savic S, Marsland A, McKay D, Ardern-Jones MR, Leslie T, Somenzi O, et al. Retrospective case note review of chronic spontaneous urticaria outcomes and adverse effects in patients treated with omalizumab or ciclosporin in UK secondary care. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2015 Jul 21;11(1):21.

Shamsi Z, Hindmarch I. Sedation and antihistamines: a review of inter-drug differences using proportional impairment ratios. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2000 Oct;15(S1):S3–S30.

Simons FE. Advances in H1-antihistamines. N Engl J Med. 2004 Nov 18;351(21):2203–17.

Simons FE, Simons KJ. Histamne and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(6):1139–50.

Spector SL, Shikiar R, Harding G, Meeves S, Leahy MJ. The effect of fexofenadine hydrochloride on productivity and quality of life in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. Cutis. 2007; 79(2):157–62.

Staevska M, Gugutkova M, Lazarova C, Kralimarkova T, Dimitrov V, Zuberbier T, et al. Night-time sedating H1 -antihistamine increases daytime somnolence but not treatment efficacy in chronic spontaneous urticaria: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2014; 171(1):148–54.

Staevska M, Popov TA, Kralimarkova T, Lazarova C, Kraeva S, Popova D, et al. The effectiveness of levocetirizine and desloratadine in up to 4 times conventional doses in difficult-to-treat urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Mar;125(3):676–82.

Stull D, McBride D, Georgiou P, Zuberbier T, Grattan C, Balp M-M. Measuring patient severity in CSU as categorical health states: efficient and informative? Abstract, EAACI Congress 2014.

Syrigos N, Grapsa D, Zande M, Tziotou M, Syrigou E. Treatment response to omalizumab in patients with refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria. Int J Dermatol. 2018 Apr;57(4):417–22.

Thompson AK, Finn AF, Schoenwetter WF. Effet of 60 mg twice-daily fexofenadine HCl on quality of life, work and classroom productivity, and regular activity in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000; 43(1 Pt 1):24–30.

Van den Elzen MT, van Os-Mendendorp H, van den Brink I, van den Hurk K, Kouznetsova OI, Lokin ASHJ, et al. Effectiveness and safety of antihistamines up to fourfold or higher in treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Clin Transl Allergy. 2017; 7:4.

Wang L, Ke X, Kavati A, Wertz D, Huang Q, Willey VJ, Stephenson JJ, et al. Real-world treatment patterns and outcomes of omalizumab use in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. Curr Med Res Opin. 2018;34(1):35–9.

Weller K, Ardelean E, Scholz E, Martus P, Zuberbier T, Maurer M. Can on-demand non-sedating antihistamines improve urticaria symptoms? A double-blind, randomized, single-dose study. Acta Derm Venereol. 2013; 93(2):168–74.

Weller K, Church MK, Hawro T, Altrichter S, Labeaga L, Magerl M, et al. Updosing of bilastine is effective in moderate to severe chronic spontaneous urticaria: A real-life study. Allergy. 2018, [Epub ahead of print].

Weller K, Ziege C, Staubach P, Brockow K, Siebenhaar F, Krause K, et al. H1-antihistamine up-dosing in chronic spontaneous urticaria: patients' perspective of effectiveness and side effects-a retrospective survey study. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23931.

World Health Organization. List of essential medicines. Available at http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/ (accessed December 2017).

Xolair® (omalizumab) summary of product characteristics. 2017. Available from: http://www.xolair.com/allergic-asthma/prescribing-information.html (accessed April 2017).

Xolair® prescribing information. Available from: https://www.gene.com/download/pdf/xolair_prescribing.pdf(accessed April 2017).

Yagami A, Furue M, Togawa M, Saito A, Hide M. One-year safety and efficacy study of bilastine treatment in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria or pruritus associated with skin diseases. J Dermatol. 2017; 44(4):375–85.

Zuberbier T, Asero R, Bindslev-Jensen C, Walter Canonica G, Church MK, Giménez-Arnau AM, et al. EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: management of urticaria. Allergy. 2009 Oct;64(10):1427–43.

Zuberbier T, Maurer M. Thurmond RL (editor). 2010a. Histamine in Inflammation. New York: Landes biosciences and Springer Science + Business Media LLC. Chapter 7 – Antihistamines in the treatment of urticaria; pages 67–72.

Zuberbier T, Oanta A, Bogacka E, Medina I, Wesel F, Uhl P, et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of bilastine 20 mg vs levocetirizine 5 mg for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Allergy. 2010; 65:516–28.

Zuberbier T, Aberer W, Asero R, Abdul Latiff AH, Baker D, Ballmer-Weber B. et al. The EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and management of urticaria: the 2017 revision and update. Allergy. 2018 Jul;73(7):1398–414.