Pathophysiology References

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Beck LA, Bernstein JA, Maurer M. A Review of International Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Urticaria. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017 Feb 8;97(2):149–158.

Chang TW, Chen C, Lin CJ, Metz M, Church MK, Maurer M, et al. The potential pharmacologic mechanisms of omalizumab in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Feb;135(2):337–42.

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Ishizaka T, Conrad DH, Schulman ES, Sterk AR, Ishizaka K. Biochemical analysis of initial triggering events of IgE-mediated histamine release from human lung mast cells. J Immunol. 1983 May;130(5):2357–62.

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Sabroe RA, Poon E, Orchard GE, Lane D, Francis DM, Barr RM, et al. Cutaneous inflammatory cell infiltrate in chronic idiopathic urticaria: comparison of patients with and without anti-FcepsilonRI or anti-IgE autoantibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Mar;103(3 Pt 1):484–93.

Siebenhaar F, Melde A, Magerl M, Zuberbier T, Church MK, Maurer M. Histamine intolerance in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Oct;30(10):1774–1777.

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Zuberbier T, Aberer W, Asero R, Abdul Latiff AH, Baker D, Ballmer-Weber B. et al. The EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and management of urticaria: the 2017 revision and update. Allergy. 2018 Jul;73(7):1398–414.

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