Pathophysiology References

Risk Factors 

  1. National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH Fact Sheets. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Last accessed 11 October 2016. https://report.nih.gov/nihfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=77.
  2. Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2017). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Available from: http://goldcopd.org/.
  3. Gibson GJ, Loddenkemper R, Sibille Y, Lundbäck B, eds. European Lung White Book. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Last accessed 10 October 2016. http://www.erswhitebook.org/files/public/Chapters/13_COPD.pdf.
  4. Halbert RJ, Natoli JL, Gano A, et al. Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 2006;28: 523–532.
  5. Terzikhan N, Verhamme KM, Hofman A, et al. Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study. Eur J Epidemiol 2016;31:785–792.
  6. Lundback B, Lindberg A, Lindstrom M, et al. Not 15 but 50% of smokers develop COPD?--Report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies. Respir Med 2003;97: 115–122.
  7. Hu G, Zhou Y, Tian J, et al. Risk of COPD from exposure to biomass smoke: a metaanalysis. Chest 2010;138: 20–31.
  8. van Gemert F, Chavannes N, Kirenga B, et al. Socio-economic factors, gender and smoking as determinants of COPD in a low-income country of sub-Saharan Africa: FRESH AIR Uganda. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2016;26:16050.
  9. Lindgren A, Stroh E, Montnemery P, et al. Traffic-related air pollution associated with prevalence of asthma and COPD/chronic bronchitis. A cross-sectional study in Southern Sweden. Int J Health Geogr 2009;8: 2.
  10. Schikowski T, Sugiri D, Ranft U, et al. Long-term air pollution exposure and living close to busy roads are associated with COPD in women. Respir Res 2005;6: 152.
  11. Lamprecht B, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, et al. COPD in never smokers: results from the population-based burden of obstructive lung disease study. Chest 2011;139: 752–763.
  12. Lawlor DA, Ebrahim S, Davey SG. Association of birth weight with adult lung function: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis. Thorax 2005;60: 851-858.
  13. de Serres FJ, Blanco I, Fernandez-Bustillo E. Estimated numbers and prevalence of PI*S and PI*Z deficiency alleles of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency in Asia. Eur Respir J 2006;28: 1091–1099.
  14. García-Palenzuela R, Timiraos Carrasco R, Gómez-Besteiro MI, et al. [Detection of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: A study on patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary health care]. Semergen 2017;43: 289–94.
  15. Andreas S, Hering T, Mühlig S, et al. Smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an effective medical intervention. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009;106:276–282.

Pathogenesis

  1. Saetta M et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;165:1404–1409.
  2. Lundback B, Lindberg A, Lindstrom M, et al. Not 15 but 50% of smokers develop COPD?--Report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies. Respir Med 2003;97: 115–122.
  3. Celli BR, MacNee W. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. Eur Respir J 2004;23: 932–946.
  4. Barnes PJ, Shapiro SD, Pauwels RA. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: molecular and cellular mechanisms. Eur Respir J 2003;22: 672688.
  5. Repine JE, Bast A, Lankhorst I. Oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxidative Stress Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156: 341–357.
  6. Turino GM. The origins of a concept: the protease-antiprotease imbalance hypothesis. Chest 2002;122: 1058–1060.
  7. Hogg JC. Pathophysiology of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet 2004;364: 709–721.
  8. O'Donnell DE, Laveneziana P. The clinical importance of dynamic lung hyperinflation in COPD. COPD 2006;3: 219–232.
  9. Barnes PJ. Mechanisms in COPD: differences from asthma. Chest 2000;117: 10S-14S.
  10. Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2017). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Available from: http://goldcopd.org/.
  11. Barnes PJ, Burney PG, Silverman EK, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2015;1:15076.
  12. Eisner MD, Iribarren C, Yelin EH, et al. Pulmonary function and the risk of functional limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167: 1090–1101.
  13. Rennard S, Decramer M, Calverley PM, et al. Impact of COPD in North America and Europe in 2000: subjects' perspective of Confronting COPD International Survey. Eur Respir J 2002;20: 799–805.
  14. Kumar P, Clark M. Respiratory disease. Clinical Medicine Sixth Edition. 2005.
  15. Agusti A. Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: what we know and what we don't know (but should). Proc Am Thorac Soc 2007;4: 522–525.
  16. Terzano C, Conti V, Di SF, et al. Comorbidity, hospitalization, and mortality in COPD: results from a longitudinal study. Lung 2010;188: 321–329.
  17. Feary JR, Rodrigues LC, Smith CJ, et al. Prevalence of major comorbidities in subjects with COPD and incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke: a comprehensive analysis using data from primary care. Thorax 2010;65: 956–962.
  18. Sidney S, Sorel M, Quesenberry CP, Jr., et al. COPD and incident cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and mortality: Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Chest 2005;128: 2068–2075.
  19. de Miguel DJ, Garcia TG, Maestu LP. [Comorbidities in COPD]. Arch Bronconeumol 2010;46 Suppl 11: 20–25.
  20. Nussbaumer-Ochsner Y, Rabe KF. Systemic manifestations of COPD. Chest 2011;139: 165–173.
  21. Roberts CM, Stone RA, Lowe D, et al. Co-morbidities and 90-day outcomes in hospitalized COPD exacerbations. COPD 2011;8: 354–361.
  22. Dalal AA, Shah M, Lunacsek O, et al. Clinical and economic burden of patients diagnosed with COPD with comorbid cardiovascular disease. Respir Med 2011;105: 1516–1522.