Discover the incidence rates and epidemiology of the most common form of adult leukaemia (CLL) in the Western world. Highlighting the prevalence and burden that may affect the physical, psychological, social and functional well-being of patients.
Clonal proliferation and accumulation of CD5+CD23+ B-cells and other characteristics of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia pathogenesis are discussed along with genetic aspects, signalling mechanisms and the role of the microenvironment.
A brief summary of the signs and symptoms a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia may have and what to consider in making a diagnosis, including white blood cell/lymphocyte count elevation, lymphadenopathy, tiredness, symptoms of anaemia.
Detailing the European and UK recommendations for the diagnosis and staging of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia including looking for the high levels of monoclonal B cells over a set time and distinguishing between CLL, monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis and small lymphocytic leukaemia.
Covering aspects of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia that indicate the potential clinical course and outcomes the prognosis section details clinical staging, minimal residual disease, genetic biomarkers, and other biomarkers including ZAP-70 protein, CD38 and CD49d.
Explore the treatment indications & choices, consolidation therapy, supportive care, & stem cell transplantation management options for CLL.
The clinical data for chemotherapy, immunotherapy & combination of these therapies are discussed as CLL treatments.
B-cell receptor signalling involves a complex interplay of many factors and pathways which can be inhibited to reduce their activity.