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The Hypogonadism Knowledge Centre is a resource for healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with the condition.

The publications digest section of this resource is regularly updated with analysis and commentary on recent scientific articles related to male hypogonadism. There are currently over 50 articles available in the publications digest area, which can be filtered by year or by the following comorbidities:

  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Cardiovascular
  • Mood and behaviour
  • Sexual health



Hepatitis can be caused by many different things including viral infections, parasites, bacteria, chemicals, autoimmunity, drugs or alcohol. Of these, viral infection is the most common cause of chronic (long-term) hepatitis, which can lead to severe liver damage including cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are among the world’s most common infectious pathogens. It is estimated that 500 million people – 1 in 12 of the global population – are chronically infected with one or both of these viruses.1,2  The majority of these people live in the developing world and many of them are unaware that they are infected. Chronically infected patients are at increased risk of developing cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which together account for more than 1 million deaths annually.3

The hepatitis B virus is a resilient virus present in all bodily fluids of infected individuals. It is resistant to breakdown and able to survive outside the body. It can be transmitted effectively through contact with infected bodily fluids in the same way as HIV. However, HBV is 50–100 times more infectious than HIV.

Screening for HBV and HCV infection is crucial, not only to detect patients who may require treatment to reduce the risk of progression to severe sequelae, but also to reduce transmission rates.

The primary objective of therapy for chronic HBV is to achieve control of viral replication and halt disease progression/improve liver histology. This will decrease pathogenicity and infectivity and thereby stop or reduce hepatic necroinflammation.

Chronic hepatitis C infection may result in severe liver damage leading to liver failure, HCC and death. As a consequence, therapeutic intervention can arrest, and perhaps even reverse, the disease before irreversible liver damage occurs. 

Enter the Hepatitis B and C Knowledge Centre


1. World Health Organization. World Health Organization Hepatitis B Fact Sheet. 1998.
2. World Hepatitis Alliance.
3. Lai CL, Ratziu V, Yuen MF, Poynard T. Viral hepatitis B. Lancet 2003;362:2089–94

Clinical Case Studies

HIV and Syphilis in Pregnancy

Infection: Genitourinary Infection

Nneka Nwokolo, Consultant in Genitourinary Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Case History
A 35-year-old Ethiopian woman was referred from the antenatal clinic with the following results from her booking blood tests: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody-positive, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test 1:64, syphilis immunoglobulin G/immunoglobulin M positive, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) positive. She was 20 weeks pregnant with her fourth child.

HIV Seroconversion

Infection: HIV Infection

Antonia Ho, Specialist Registrar in Infectious Diseases, Gartnavel General Hospital, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, UK

Case History
A 29-year-old man was admitted with a week's history of general malaise accompanied by severe myalgia, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, headache, dry cough and swelling and redness of his eyes. He was a heavy drinker, and had fallen into the river Clyde two weeks previously while inebriated.

Medical Videos

The Risk Factors Associated With Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The Risk Factors Associated With Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Recent Drug Updates

Medical Journal Abstracts on Sexual Health

The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

Fri 13 Feb 2015 -  The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

Context: Research on the association between religiosity and fertility—and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes—has been concerned ...

Evidence for an Altered Sex Ratio in Clinic-Referred Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

Thu 22 Jan 2015 -  Evidence for an Altered Sex Ratio in Clinic-Referred Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

Introduction: The number of adolescents referred to specialized gender identity clinics for gender dysphoria appears to be increasing and there also appears to be a corresponding shift in the sex ...

Medical Images

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
HIV-1 genome
HIV-1 genome
Key events leading up to the era of HAART
Key events leading up to the era of HAART
HIV envelope glycoprotein
HIV envelope glycoprotein
gp120 and the CCR5 co-receptor
 gp120 and the CCR5 co-receptor
HIV-1 group M subtypes and CRFs
HIV-1 group M subtypes and CRFs

Online CME

Chlamydia screening

After completing this module you should know: why it is important to screen for chlamydia, who to screen under the chlamydia screening programme and which samples to request, how to...

Clinical Trials

Treatment With MSC in HIV-infected Patients With Controlled Viremia and Immunological Discordant Response

Mon 10 Nov 2014

Clinical trial phase I/II, of test of concept, blind double, and controlled with placebo, randomized 2:1 (Treatment: placebo), in which a total of 15 patients will be ...

Study to Evaluate Efficacy of Darunavir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) Regimen Versus Boosted Protease Inhibitor (bPI) Along With Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (FTC/TDF) Regimen in Virologically-Suppressed, HIV-1 Infected Participants

Fri 17 Oct 2014

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate non-inferiority in efficacy while switching to a once-daily single-tablet regimen containing darunavir (DRV)/ cobicistat (COBI)/ emtricitabine (FTC)/ ...

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