The Hypogonadism Knowledge Centre is a resource for healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with the condition.
The publications digest section of this resource is regularly updated with analysis and commentary on recent scientific articles related to male hypogonadism. There are currently over 50 articles available in the publications digest area, which can be filtered by year or by the following comorbidities:
Hepatitis can be caused by many different things including viral infections, parasites, bacteria, chemicals, autoimmunity, drugs or alcohol. Of these, viral infection is the most common cause of chronic (long-term) hepatitis, which can lead to severe liver damage including cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are among the world’s most common infectious pathogens. It is estimated that 500 million people – 1 in 12 of the global population – are chronically infected with one or both of these viruses.1,2 The majority of these people live in the developing world and many of them are unaware that they are infected. Chronically infected patients are at increased risk of developing cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which together account for more than 1 million deaths annually.3
The hepatitis B virus is a resilient virus present in all bodily fluids of infected individuals. It is resistant to breakdown and able to survive outside the body. It can be transmitted effectively through contact with infected bodily fluids in the same way as HIV. However, HBV is 50–100 times more infectious than HIV.
The primary objective of therapy for chronic HBV is to achieve control of viral replication and halt disease progression/improve liver histology. This will decrease pathogenicity and infectivity and thereby stop or reduce hepatic necroinflammation.
Chronic hepatitis C infection may result in severe liver damage leading to liver failure, HCC and death. As a consequence, therapeutic intervention can arrest, and perhaps even reverse, the disease before irreversible liver damage occurs.
1. World Health Organization. World Health Organization Hepatitis B Fact Sheet. 1998. 2. World Hepatitis Alliance. www.aminumber12.org 3. Lai CL, Ratziu V, Yuen MF, Poynard T. Viral hepatitis B. Lancet 2003;362:2089–94
Antonia Ho,Specialist Registrar in Infectious Diseases, Gartnavel General Hospital, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, UK
Case History A 29-year-old man was admitted with a week's history of general malaise accompanied by severe myalgia, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, headache, dry cough and swelling and redness of his eyes. He was a heavy drinker, and had fallen into the river Clyde two weeks previously while inebriated.