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The Hypogonadism Knowledge Centre is a resource for healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with the condition.

The publications digest section of this resource is regularly updated with analysis and commentary on recent scientific articles related to male hypogonadism. There are currently over 50 articles available in the publications digest area, which can be filtered by year or by the following comorbidities:

  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Cardiovascular
  • Mood and behaviour
  • Sexual health



Hepatitis can be caused by many different things including viral infections, parasites, bacteria, chemicals, autoimmunity, drugs or alcohol. Of these, viral infection is the most common cause of chronic (long-term) hepatitis, which can lead to severe liver damage including cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are among the world’s most common infectious pathogens. It is estimated that 500 million people – 1 in 12 of the global population – are chronically infected with one or both of these viruses.1,2  The majority of these people live in the developing world and many of them are unaware that they are infected. Chronically infected patients are at increased risk of developing cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which together account for more than 1 million deaths annually.3

The hepatitis B virus is a resilient virus present in all bodily fluids of infected individuals. It is resistant to breakdown and able to survive outside the body. It can be transmitted effectively through contact with infected bodily fluids in the same way as HIV. However, HBV is 50–100 times more infectious than HIV.

Screening for HBV and HCV infection is crucial, not only to detect patients who may require treatment to reduce the risk of progression to severe sequelae, but also to reduce transmission rates.

The primary objective of therapy for chronic HBV is to achieve control of viral replication and halt disease progression/improve liver histology. This will decrease pathogenicity and infectivity and thereby stop or reduce hepatic necroinflammation.

Chronic hepatitis C infection may result in severe liver damage leading to liver failure, HCC and death. As a consequence, therapeutic intervention can arrest, and perhaps even reverse, the disease before irreversible liver damage occurs. 

Enter the Hepatitis B and C Knowledge Centre


1. World Health Organization. World Health Organization Hepatitis B Fact Sheet. 1998.
2. World Hepatitis Alliance.
3. Lai CL, Ratziu V, Yuen MF, Poynard T. Viral hepatitis B. Lancet 2003;362:2089–94

Clinical Case Studies

HIV and Syphilis in Pregnancy

Infection: Genitourinary Infection

Nneka Nwokolo, Consultant in Genitourinary Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Case History
A 35-year-old Ethiopian woman was referred from the antenatal clinic with the following results from her booking blood tests: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody-positive, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test 1:64, syphilis immunoglobulin G/immunoglobulin M positive, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) positive. She was 20 weeks pregnant with her fourth child.

Needlestick Injuries and Post-exposure Prophylaxis Against HIV Infection

Infection: HIV Infection

Nneka Nwokolo, Consultant in Genitourinary Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Case History
A junior doctor is referred by the occupational health department having sustained a deep puncture wound to his left thumb 30 minutes previously. He had been attempting to resheath an arterial blood gas needle used on an unconscious patient admitted the day before with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

Latest News

Medical Videos

The Risk Factors Associated With Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The Risk Factors Associated With Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Recent Drug Updates

Medical Journal Abstracts on Sexual Health

Does obesity have detrimental effects on IVF treatment outcomes?

Wed 19 Aug 2015 -  Does obesity have detrimental effects on IVF treatment outcomes?

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcomes in a cohort of women undergoing their first IVF, ...

Three-year efficacy and safety of a new 52-mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.

Wed 01 Jul 2015 -  Three-year efficacy and safety of a new 52-mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.

OBJECTIVE: To assess 3-year data on the efficacy and safety of a new 52-mg levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive (LNG20) designed for up to 7 years use. STUDY DESIGN: Nulliparous and parous ...

Medical Images

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
gp120 and the CCR5 co-receptor
 gp120 and the CCR5 co-receptor
HIV-1 genome
HIV-1 genome
HIV-1 group M subtypes and CRFs
HIV-1 group M subtypes and CRFs
HIV envelope glycoprotein
HIV envelope glycoprotein
Key events leading up to the era of HAART
Key events leading up to the era of HAART

Clinical Guidelines

The Second European Evidenced-Based Consensus on Reproduction and Pregnancy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Mar 2015

Trying to conceive and being pregnant is an emotional period for those involved. In the majority of..

... patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, maintenance therapy is required during pregnancy to control the disease, and disease control might necessitate introduction of new drugs during a vulnerable period. In this updated consensus on the reproduction and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease reproductive issues including fertility, the safety of drugs during pregnancy and lactation are discussed.

Guidelines on Male Sexual Dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation

Mar 2015

Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) and premature ejaculation (PE) are the two main complaints in..

... male sexual medicine. New oral therapies have completely changed the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to ED and the Guidelines Office of The European Association of Urology (EAU) has appointed an Expert Panel to update previously published EAU guidelines for ED or impotence. The update is based on a review of available scientific information, current research, and clinical practice in the field. The Expert Panel has also identified critical problems and knowledge gaps, setting priorities for future clinical research.

Online CME

Chlamydia screening

After completing this module you should know: why it is important to screen for chlamydia, who to screen under the chlamydia screening programme and which samples to request, how to...

Clinical Trials

Exploratory Study of Safety and ex Vivo Fluorescence of BLZ-100 in Adult Subjects With Solid Tumors Undergoing Surgery

Wed 01 Jul 2015

Surgery is the primary treatment modality for many types of cancer and the extent of surgical resection is directly related to patient survival. However, it is often difficult for surgeons ...

Treatment With MSC in HIV-infected Patients With Controlled Viremia and Immunological Discordant Response

Mon 10 Nov 2014

Clinical trial phase I/II, of test of concept, blind double, and controlled with placebo, randomized 2:1 (Treatment: placebo), in which a total of 15 patients will be ...

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