Radiology is the science that studies, and medical specialty that uses radiography; which includes techniques for producing images of the internal structure of a patient with X-rays. It also includes other non-radiographic techniques of medical imaging, such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The inventor of the first X-rays was the German professor Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923).1 During his work, he discovered an...
The medical community quickly realised the critical potential of rapid access to X-ray imaging.1 The first medical imaging services opened in early 1896 and the technique was quickly and widely adopted. Few other medical innovations have been adopted so quickly.1
In early 1970 X-rays began to be used for computed tomography (CT) scaning.1 Developed by Hounsfield and Cormack, this technique electronically combines multiple X-rays to create a three-dimensional image. This novel use of the X-ray scanner has become the best tool for diagnosis in modern medicine.1 Since radiation is hazardous to health, the lower doses of radiation necessary for CT scans allowed greater X-ray safety.2
Medical imaging is now used to detect, diagnose, treat, monitor and evaluate response to treatment for all serious medical conditions. Developments in imaging continue to improve the quality and detail, which in turn improves the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment.1
1. Dixon A.K. Editorial for Anniversary Issue of European Radiology. European Radiology. January 2001 ; 21 (3) : 447-448.
2. Devred P. et al. Centennial of the French Society of Radiology and JFR 2009: Past, Present and Future. Journal de Radiologie. December 2009 ; 90 (12) : 1781-1782.
Content on this page
- Radiology Knowledge Centres
- Prostate Cancer
- Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours
- Niemann-Pick type C
- Renal Cell Carcinoma
- Soft Tissue Sarcoma
The Prostate Cancer Knowledge Centre is an interactive resource which provides healthcare professionals with the latest information in the field of prostate cancer.
Globally, at least 913,000 people are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year, accounting for 13.8% of new cancer cases in men. Of these approximately 385,500 new cases were identified in 2008 in Europe alone, making prostate cancer a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe.1
The diagnosis rate of prostate cancer is higher in the developed world following the increased usage of PSA screening,1 resulting in the diagnosis of many asymptomatic tumours. This is combined with other detection methods for a diagnosis to be achieved.
Age, family history and ethnicity are all well established risk factors of prostate cancer.2 However many risk factors usually associated with the development of other types of cancer, such as smoking, alcohol and a sedentary lifestyle, are not thought to be associated with prostate cancer.3
Following screening the majority of men are diagnosed with a low gleason-grade, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer,2 which is managed through watchful waiting and active surveillance. This is later treated with radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy and hormonal therapies. Disease progression will lead to patients being diagnosed with castrate-resistant prostate cancer. These patients will require chemotherapy treatment according to the current guidelines.2
The Prostate Cancer Knowledge Centre brings together current and detailed information relating to:
- Disease classification
- Methods of detection
- Hormone-sensitive prostate cancer
- Castration-resistant prostate cancer
- Treatment and management guidelines
- Ferlay J, Shin H-R, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010;127(12):2893–2917.
- European Association of Urology. Guidelines on prostate cancer, 2012.
- Grönberg H. Prostate cancer epidemiology. Lancet 2003;361:859-64.
Developed by EPG Online in partnership with, and financial support from, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd
Date of preparation September 2012 EGD/12/016/EUi
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Before the current definition of GIST evolved, GISTs were classified as benign or malignant smooth muscle tumours including true smooth muscle tumours (leiomyomas, leiomyoblastomas, leiomyosarcomas) and neuronal tumours (schwannomas).1,2
Patients with GIST may be asymptomatic (31%) or symptomatic.3 Asymptomatic GISTs can be discovered incidentally during endoscopy or laparoscopy as well as during computed tomography (CT).4 Symptomatic GIST patients may present with a range of symptoms associated with the location of the tumour, growth pattern, and size.
The diagnosis of GIST relies on standard histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis of several markers, including KIT. Equivocal cases should be submitted to a central review by an expert in sarcoma pathology, experienced in the diagnosis of GIST.
Before the availability of Glivec, the only treatments for GIST other than surgery were conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy.5,6 The role of chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been limited by a lack of efficacy and intolerable toxicity, currently surgery is Standard of Care for Resectable Primary GIST.
GIST is now recognised as having a much higher incidence than previously thought. Under the current, widely accepted definition of GIST as a distinct molecular and pathologic entity, the incidence of GIST is in the range of 10-20 cases per million persons per year 7-11. The prevalence of GIST in a population-based study was estimated to be 129 cases per million persons.11 GIST tumours occur at a median age of 60 years and are slightly more predominant in men than women.9
1. Fletcher CDM, Berman JJ, Gorstein F, et al. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a consensus approach. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:459-465.
2. Connolly EM, Gaffney E, Reynolds JV. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours,Br J Surg. 2003;90:1178-1186.
3. Kindblom LG. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: diagnosis, epidemiology, prognosis. Available at: www.asco.org. Accessed July 13, 2007.
4. Joensuu H, Fletcher C, Dimitrijevic S, Silberman S, Roberts P, Demetri G. Management of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Lancet Oncol. 2002;3:655-664.
5. Eisenberg BL, Judson I. Surgery and imatinib in the management of GIST: emerging approaches to adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2004;11:464-475.
6. Dematteo RP, Heinrich MC, El-Rifai WM, Demetri G. Clinical management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: before and after STI-571. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:466-477.
7. Goettsch WG, Bos SD, Breekveldt-Postma N, Casparie M, Herings RM, Hogendoorn PC. Incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours is underestimated: results of a nation-wide study. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:2868-2872.
8. Joensuu H. Current perspectives on the epidemiology of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Eur J Cancer. 2006;4(suppl 1):4-9.
9. Blay JY, Bonvalot S, Casali P, et al. Consensus meeting for the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Report of the GIST Consensus Conference of 20-21 March 2004, under the auspices of European Society for Medical Oncology. Ann Oncol. 2005;16:566-578.
10. Miettinen M, Lasota J. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors--definition, clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features and differential diagnosis. Virchows Arch. 2001;438:1-12.
11. Nilsson B, Bumming P, Meis-Kindblom JM, et al. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: The incidence, prevalence, clinical course, and prognostication in the preimatinib mesylate era. Cancer. 2005;103:821-829
Niemann-Pick type C disease is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disorder that causes severe, progressive neurological symptoms. It is a very serious, life-threatening condition that can affect infants, children and adults. NP-C is characterized by cellular accumulation of lipids, in particular unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, in many parts of the body including brain, liver and spleen.
The variability of NPC presentations provides a wide range of life expectancy. In general, early-onset patients tend to die during childhood or early adolescence, while patients with later-onset disease who appear to be less drastically affected can live into late adulthood.
Accurate diagnosis of NPC requires awareness of many clinical phenotypes, narrowing of differential diagnosis by ancillary testing and final confirmation by biochemical testing – the current mainstay of primary diagnosis in NPC.
The prevalence of NPC has undoubtedly been underestimated in the past due to a mixture of factors including confusing terminology, prior lack of specific biochemical or genetic tests, varied pathology, and the many variant clinical manifestations of the disease.
Current, non-specific treatments for NPC focus mainly on supportive care, aimed toward managing the symptoms of the disease. As such, these treatments have no effect on disease progression or long-term outcomes.
Specific therapies for the intended treatment of NPC are based on targeting known pathophysiological and/or biochemical defects involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. While earlier attempts proved largely ineffective, more recent efforts indicate possible hope for the future.
Kidney cancer is the 14th most common cancer and there were approximately 200,000 new kidney cancer cases worldwide in 2002. RCC is a global problem, but its incidence varies considerably by geographical location. Rates of RCC are high in North America, Europe and Australia, whereas rates are low in Africa, India and China. Until recently, the worldwide incidence of RCC has increased by approximately 2% every year.
It is estimated that there will be 54,390 new cases of kidney cancer and 13,010 kidney cancer-related deaths in the US in 2008 alone. Global incidence data on mRCC are lacking, but can be estimated from figures for overall RCC rates.
In 2006, there were estimated to be 63,300 new cases of kidney cancer (tenth most common cancer in the European Union [EU]1) and 26,400 kidney cancer-related deaths in the EU. The Czech Republic, Estonia and Iceland have the highest RCC rates in Europe. Although the worldwide incidence of RCC is thought to be increasing,2 data from a recent European study, which analysed kidney cancer incidence in 1980– 2004, indicate a shift towards stabilization or a decrease in incidence in recent years in both sexes. Recently, kidney cancer incidence rates also have decreased or stabilized in some countries in Northern Europe, except for England, Scotland and Ireland, whereas incidence in Eastern Europe has generally increased (except for women in the early 2000s). The highest sustained decreases in incidence rates were seen in Sweden; declines were observed in both sexes throughout the 25-year study period.
1.Ferlay J, Autier P, Boniol M et al. Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol 2007; 18:581-592.
2. Matthew A, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF, Jr.., Chow WH. Global Increases in kidney cancer incidence, 1973-1992. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002;11:171-178.
Soft Tissue Sarcomas (STS) are malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in tissues which connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body. Muscles, tendons (bands of fiber that connect muscles to bones), fibrous tissues, fat, blood vessels, nerves, and synovial tissues are types of soft tissue.
Soft tissue sarcomas are grouped together because they share certain microscopic characteristics, have similar symptoms, and are generally treated in similar ways.1 They are usually named for the type of tissue in which they begin.
Every year approximately 13,000 new cases of soft tissue sarcomas are diagnosed in adults and children in Europe. The 5-year survival rate for patients with soft tissue sarcoma is around 90% if the cancer is detected in early phases and before it has spread. However, the 5-year survival rate is 10% to 15% for sarcomas with metastasis.
Management of STS depends on the stage of disease and histological subtype.2 Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for patients with localised disease and is often curative. However, as recurrence is likely to occur when tumour cells remain after surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy is often also considered, especially for patients with intermediate or high-grade tumours. Radiotherapy is also often administered for patients in whom surgery is inappropriate or who decline surgery.2
There are a number of Associations and Organisations across Europe who strive to inform others of this disease as well as offer help and support to those affected or to those who know and want to help those suffering.
1. Cormier JN, Pollock RE. Soft tissue sarcomas. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2004; 54(2):94–109.
2. Clark MA, Fisher C et al. (2005) “Soft-tissue sarcomas in adults.” N Engl JMed 353(7): 701–11.
The FDA has cleared the M2 Compact MRI system, from Aspect Imaging, for diagnostic Imaging of the wrist. Unlike conventional high field MRI systems, the M2 Compact Wrist System does not require a shielded room, cryogens, or high capacity electrical power. The system features an innovative 1 Tesla, self-shielded, permanent magnet operating in a quiet manner. As a result, the compact MRI can be...
FDA approves FibroScan Elastography Imaging system(Echosens) for non-invasive liver disease diagnosis18-04-2013
The FibroScan device from Echosens has received 510(k) clearance from the FDA for use in non-invasive liver disease diagnosis. Based on a technology called Transient Elastography, FibroScan assesses liver shear wave speed and equivalent stiffness in a rapid, simple, non-invasive and totally painless way. Initially introduced in the European market in 2003, it has received market clearances in...
The FDA has on 22 March 2013, approved an extension to the indication of AdreView (Iobenguane I 123 Injection) from GE HealthCare for the scintigraphic assessment of Myocardial Sympathetic Innervation (cardiac nerve activity) to assist in the evaluation of patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II or Class III Heart Failure and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) equal to...
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ABILIFY solution for injection is indicated for the rapid control of agitation and disturbed behaviours in patients with schizophrenia or in patients with manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder, when...
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The aim of the study is to determine relevant hemodynamic parameters for the diagnostics of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by dynamic contrast enhanced dual-energy CT (DE-CT). In this prospective study the investigators validate DE-CT results of patients against hemodynamic parameters from right heart..
CardioPET as PET Imaging Agent to Assess Myocardial Perfusion and Fatty Acid Uptake in Known or Suspected CAD Subjects04-04-2013
The study is designed to evaluate how safe and how well an investigational imaging product CardioPET™ performs as compared to standard approved imaging products in assessing the function of heart muscle in coronary artery disease patients.
Doppler study of the fetal vertebral and middle cerebral arteries in fetuses with normal and increased umbilical artery resistance indices
Journal of Clinical Ultrasound
Objective: To compare the brain sparing mechanism of the fetal vertebral artery (VA), with the one of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in fetuses with increased umbilical artery (UA) Doppler impedance. Method: We retrospectively studied 1084 Doppler examinations of the VA, MCA and UA performed in 1084 fetuses between..
Purpose: To determine the additional diagnostic value of high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) compared to conventional biliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiating gallbladder (GB) cancer from benign GB diseases with wall thickening. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients with GB cancers..
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