Andrology and urology are specialties that involve the study, diagnosis and treatment of male reproductive system and urinary tract dysfunction.
The male reproductive system consists of; the scrotum containing the testes, the epididymis and vas deferens connecting the testes to the prostate, the prostate itself, and the urethra connecting the prostate to the final component, the penis.1
Infertility affects approximately 25% of European couples, and male infertility is a factor in 50% of these cases.3 The most common demonstrable cause of male infertility is varicocele (increased scrotal temperature), followed by urogenital infections and immunological factors.3
Prostate and testicular cancers account for 24%4 and 1-2%5 of all newly diagnosed male cancers in the UK respectively. Testicular cancer is most commonly diagnosed in white Caucasian men aged between 20 and 49 years. Worldwide the highest age-standardised incidence rates are found in Western and Northern Europe, specifically Denmark, Germany and Solvenia.5 Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in European men behind lung cancer, with 301,500 new cases diagnosed in 25 EU member states in 2006.4
1. Snell R.S. Clinical Anatomy by Regions. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. 2007 : 352-355
2. Beers M.H. et al. The Merck manual of medical information. Merck research laboratories. Second home edition. 2003 : 1321-1340.
3. Dohle G.R. et al. EAU Guidelines on Male Infertility. European Urology. November 2005 ; 48 (5) : 703-711
4. Cancer Research UK. Prostate Cancer â€“ UK. Cancer Stats. March 2007 : 1-10
5. Cancer Research UK. Testicular Cancer â€“ UK. Cancer Stats. March 2007 : 1-8
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As a disease topic Men's Health covers a broad set of issues affecting men of all ages. Some of the issues requiring greater focus and more thorough dissemination of information amongst the healthcare community, are those that have the potential to go undetected in the early stages. Diseases where early detection and more regular health checks not only improve prognosis and efficacy of treatment outcomes, but also quality of life.
Erectile dysfunction is characterized by the regular or repeated inability to obtain or maintain an erection. Although not considered a part of the aging process, it is associated with certain physiologic and psychological changes related to age. ED is most common in men between 40-70 years of age. However incidence is also higher amongst men with certain medical conditions which include, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension. ED can also be a warning sign/symptom of these underlying conditions. 1
Testosterone is an essential male hormone produced in the testes that plays a crucial role in the health and well being of male bodies. It is responsible for typical male sexual characteristics and is required by all men for a healthy life physically and psychologically.
Low testosterone, clinically known as hypogonadism, consists of decreased functional activity of the testes with diminished production and action of testosterone. Although there is a progressive decline in testosterone levels as men age, hypogonadism can occur in men of any age.
Men with low testosterone are also at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis.
For your information, the Mens Health knowledge centre concentrates on the understanding, management and treatment of erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. The website also provides extensive details on up-coming conferences as well as an extensive library of useful resource. You can also access the knowledge centre via www.menshealthfocus.com.
1. McVary, Kevin T. Erectile. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL et al., editors. Harrison's Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. p. 272-274
The Prostate Cancer Knowledge Centre is an interactive resource which provides healthcare professionals with the latest information in the field of prostate cancer.
Globally, at least 913,000 people are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year, accounting for 13.8% of new cancer cases in men. Of these approximately 385,500 new cases were identified in 2008 in Europe alone, making prostate cancer a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe.1
The diagnosis rate of prostate cancer is higher in the developed world following the increased usage of PSA screening,1 resulting in the diagnosis of many asymptomatic tumours. This is combined with other detection methods for a diagnosis to be achieved.
Age, family history and ethnicity are all well established risk factors of prostate cancer.2 However many risk factors usually associated with the development of other types of cancer, such as smoking, alcohol and a sedentary lifestyle, are not thought to be associated with prostate cancer.3
Following screening the majority of men are diagnosed with a low gleason-grade, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer,2 which is managed through watchful waiting and active surveillance. This is later treated with radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy and hormonal therapies. Disease progression will lead to patients being diagnosed with castrate-resistant prostate cancer. These patients will require chemotherapy treatment according to the current guidelines.2
The Prostate Cancer Knowledge Centre brings together current and detailed information relating to:
- Disease classification
- Methods of detection
- Hormone-sensitive prostate cancer
- Castration-resistant prostate cancer
- Treatment and management guidelines
- Ferlay J, Shin H-R, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010;127(12):2893–2917.
- European Association of Urology. Guidelines on prostate cancer, 2012.
- Grönberg H. Prostate cancer epidemiology. Lancet 2003;361:859-64.
Developed by EPG Online in partnership with, and financial support from, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd
Date of preparation September 2012 EGD/12/016/EUi
The FDA has approved Xofigo (radium Ra 223 dichloride), from Bayer HealthCare, for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant Prostate Cancer, symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease. Xofigo (formerly Alpharadin) is the first and only alpha particle-emitting radioactive therapeutic agent approved by the FDA that has demonstrated improvement in overall...
Vivus, the USA-based pharmaceutical company has received a positive opinion from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), recommending European Commission approval for Spedra (Avanafil) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in adult men.
Avanafil is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor which increased the percentage of sexual attempts resulting in...
Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd., the European Headquarters of Astellas Pharma Inc. and Medivation, Inc.have received a positive opinion from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), recommending European Commission approval for Xtandi (enzalutamide) capsules for the treatment of adult men with metastatic castration-resistant Prostate Cancer whose disease has progressed on or...
Possible searches include drugs or medicines (by brand, generic ingredient or drug class), diseases, conditions and more.
For the local treatment of vulvovaginal candidosis and superinfections due to gram-positive bacteria. ...
YENTREVE is indicated for women for the treatment of moderate to severe stress urinary incontinence (SUI)....
Symptomatic treatment of urge incontinence and/or increased urinary frequency and urgency as may occur in patients with overactive bladder syndrome....
The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines Group for Prostate Cancer have prepared this..
Because patients seek help for LUTS and not an underlying attribute of the prostate such as BPH or..
Multi-Center Randomized Clinical Trial Irreversible Electroporation for the Ablation of Localized Prostate Cancer08-04-2013
Multi-centre Randomized Clinical Trial: 200 patients with confirmed unilateral high-volume low risk (Gleason score 3 + 3) or intermediate risk prostate cancer (Gleason score 3 + 4) will undergo an IRE treatment. These patients will be randomized into one of the two groups of the study. Group 1: Hemi-ablation of the..
This single-center, randomized, double-blind trial assesses the impact of short-term atorvastatin administration on proliferation activity, apoptotic rate and histological inflammation in prostate tissue.
A national study of the provision of oncology sperm banking services among Canadian fertility clinics
European Journal of Cancer Care
The purpose of this study was to survey the current state of oncology sperm banking services provided by fertility clinics across Canada. A total of 78 Canadian fertility facilities were invited to complete a questionnaire related to the availability, accessibility, affordability and utilisation of sperm banking..
Identification of transcription factors associated with castration-resistance: Is the serum responsive factor a potential therapeutic target?
Background: Advanced prostate cancer is treated by hormone ablation therapy. However, despite an initial response, the majority of men relapse to develop castration-resistant disease for which there are no effective treatments. We have previously shown that manipulating individual proteins has only minor alterations on..
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