- Respiratory System Overview
- COPD is a disease of the respiratory system. The respiratory system comprises the upper airways and the lower airways, which include the lungs. Read more
1. Marieb EN. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3rd ed. Redwood City, CA:Benjamin Cummings Publishing, 1995.
- Understanding COPD
- "A preventable and treatable disease with some significant extrapulmonary effects that may contribute to the severity in individual patients...". Read more
- Diagnosis of COPD
- A diagnosis of COPD should be made on the basis of a thorough medical history, physical examination and measurement of airflow limitation by spirometry... read more
3. Living Art Enterprises, LLC / Science Photo Library, M150 / 322. Available at: www.sciencephoto.com (Accessed 24 February 2009).
- Treatment of COPD
- Bronchodilators act to relax the smooth muscle around the bronchioles, which widens airways and allows easier air-flow. These drugs improve emptying of the lungs, reducing hyperinflation and improving exercise performance... Read more