Urology is the medical and surgical specialty that studies the kidneys and urinary tracts of men and women, and the male reproductive system (male urogenital tract). It also encompasses the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra and male reproductive system.
Kidneys produce urine by continuous blood filtration. Each kidney is composed of approximately one million nephrons which represent...
The urinary tract is a region of possible obstruction and infection. Upper urinary tract obstructions are commonly caused by ureteric stones,6 but can also be caused by a variety of other conditions. Urinary tract infections (UTI) can be divided into upper and lower UTI; the former affects the kidneys and ureter, the latter affects the urethra and bladder7. Female populations can suffer from UTI at any point in their lives whereas men are usually only affected at the extremes of the age spectrum.8
Renal failure can be either acute or chronic, distinguished by the length of time taken for the kidneys to become incapable of filtering metabolic waste from the blood. Acute renal failure develops rapidly over a period of hours or days,9 whereas chronic renal failure develops over months or years.10 The most common causes of chronic renal failure are diabetes mellitus and hypertension.11
There are four main types of cancer effecting the kidney and urinary tract; renal cell carcinomas, transitional cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas.11 Kidney cancer accounts for 3% of all cancers in the UK. Incidence rates increase with age and it is more prevalent in men than women.12
Non-cancerous diseases of the prostate gland include prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia.11 Prostate cancer accounts for 24% of new male cancers in the UK and is increasingly prevalent with advancing age in men over the age of 50.13
1. Martini F. et al. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology. Pearson Education. 2005 : 717-723.
2. Niaudet P. Nephritic Syndrome. Comprehensive Pediatric Nephrology. Elsevier Inc. 2008 : 195-203.
3. Gbadegesin R. et al. Nephrotic Syndrome. Comprehensive Pediatric Nephrology. Elsevier Inc. 2008 : 195-203.
4. Milford D.B. Investigating Haematuria and Proteinuria. Paediatrics and Child Health. August 2008 ; 18 (8) : 349-353.
5. Lerma E.V. Tubulointerstitial Disease. Nephrology Secrets. Elsevier Inc. 2012 : 325-339.
6. O’Reilly P.H. et al. Urinary Tract Obstruction. Medicine. August 2007 ; 35 (8) : 420-422.
7. Schlossberg D. Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press. 2008 : 499.
8. Tolkoff-Rubin N.E. et al. Therapy of Urinary Tract Infection. Therapy in Nephrology & Hypertension. Elsevier Inc. 2008 : 447-454.
9. Schrier R.W. Manual of Nephrology: Diagnosis and Therapy. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2008 : 154.
10. Woo K.T. et al. Clinical Nephrology. World Scientific. 2002 : 287.
11. Beers M.H. et al. The Merck Manual of Medical Information. Merck research laboratories. Second home edition. 2003 : 831-878.
12. Cancer Research UK. Cancer Stats. Kidney Cancer – UK. January 2008 : 1-8.
13. Cancer Research UK. Cancer Stats. Prostate Cancer – UK. January 2008 : 1-10.
Content on this page
- Urological and Kidney Diseases Knowledge Centres
- Prostate Cancer
- Men's Health
- Renal Cell Carcinoma
- Clinical Case Studies
The Prostate Cancer Knowledge Centre is an interactive resource which provides healthcare professionals with the latest information in the field of prostate cancer.
Globally, at least 913,000 people are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year, accounting for 13.8% of new cancer cases in men. Of these approximately 385,500 new cases were identified in 2008 in Europe alone, making prostate cancer a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe.1
The diagnosis rate of prostate cancer is higher in the developed world following the increased usage of PSA screening,1 resulting in the diagnosis of many asymptomatic tumours. This is combined with other detection methods for a diagnosis to be achieved.
Age, family history and ethnicity are all well established risk factors of prostate cancer.2 However many risk factors usually associated with the development of other types of cancer, such as smoking, alcohol and a sedentary lifestyle, are not thought to be associated with prostate cancer.3
Following screening the majority of men are diagnosed with a low gleason-grade, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer,2 which is managed through watchful waiting and active surveillance. This is later treated with radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy and hormonal therapies. Disease progression will lead to patients being diagnosed with castrate-resistant prostate cancer. These patients will require chemotherapy treatment according to the current guidelines.2
The Prostate Cancer Knowledge Centre brings together current and detailed information relating to:
- Disease classification
- Methods of detection
- Hormone-sensitive prostate cancer
- Castration-resistant prostate cancer
- Treatment and management guidelines
- Ferlay J, Shin H-R, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010;127(12):2893–2917.
- European Association of Urology. Guidelines on prostate cancer, 2012.
- Grönberg H. Prostate cancer epidemiology. Lancet 2003;361:859-64.
Developed by EPG Online in partnership with, and financial support from, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd
Date of preparation September 2012 EGD/12/016/EUi
As a disease topic Men's Health covers a broad set of issues affecting men of all ages. Some of the issues requiring greater focus and more thorough dissemination of information amongst the healthcare community, are those that have the potential to go undetected in the early stages. Diseases where early detection and more regular health checks not only improve prognosis and efficacy of treatment outcomes, but also quality of life.
Erectile dysfunction is characterized by the regular or repeated inability to obtain or maintain an erection. Although not considered a part of the aging process, it is associated with certain physiologic and psychological changes related to age. ED is most common in men between 40-70 years of age. However incidence is also higher amongst men with certain medical conditions which include, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension. ED can also be a warning sign/symptom of these underlying conditions. 1
Testosterone is an essential male hormone produced in the testes that plays a crucial role in the health and well being of male bodies. It is responsible for typical male sexual characteristics and is required by all men for a healthy life physically and psychologically.
Low testosterone, clinically known as hypogonadism, consists of decreased functional activity of the testes with diminished production and action of testosterone. Although there is a progressive decline in testosterone levels as men age, hypogonadism can occur in men of any age.
Men with low testosterone are also at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis.
For your information, the Mens Health knowledge centre concentrates on the understanding, management and treatment of erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. The website also provides extensive details on up-coming conferences as well as an extensive library of useful resource. You can also access the knowledge centre via www.menshealthfocus.com.
1. McVary, Kevin T. Erectile. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL et al., editors. Harrison's Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. p. 272-274
Kidney cancer is the 14th most common cancer and there were approximately 200,000 new kidney cancer cases worldwide in 2002. RCC is a global problem, but its incidence varies considerably by geographical location. Rates of RCC are high in North America, Europe and Australia, whereas rates are low in Africa, India and China. Until recently, the worldwide incidence of RCC has increased by approximately 2% every year.
It is estimated that there will be 54,390 new cases of kidney cancer and 13,010 kidney cancer-related deaths in the US in 2008 alone. Global incidence data on mRCC are lacking, but can be estimated from figures for overall RCC rates.
In 2006, there were estimated to be 63,300 new cases of kidney cancer (tenth most common cancer in the European Union [EU]1) and 26,400 kidney cancer-related deaths in the EU. The Czech Republic, Estonia and Iceland have the highest RCC rates in Europe. Although the worldwide incidence of RCC is thought to be increasing,2 data from a recent European study, which analysed kidney cancer incidence in 1980– 2004, indicate a shift towards stabilization or a decrease in incidence in recent years in both sexes. Recently, kidney cancer incidence rates also have decreased or stabilized in some countries in Northern Europe, except for England, Scotland and Ireland, whereas incidence in Eastern Europe has generally increased (except for women in the early 2000s). The highest sustained decreases in incidence rates were seen in Sweden; declines were observed in both sexes throughout the 25-year study period.
1.Ferlay J, Autier P, Boniol M et al. Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol 2007; 18:581-592.
2. Matthew A, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF, Jr.., Chow WH. Global Increases in kidney cancer incidence, 1973-1992. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002;11:171-178.
Andrew J. Winter, Consultant in Genitourinary Medicine, Sandyford Centre, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, UK
A 28-year-old man was referred by his general practitioner with several weeks of painful defecation and constipation.
Beryl Oppenheim, Consultant Microbiologist, City Hospital, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK
A 37-year-old woman presented to an accident and emergency department. She complained to the assessing doctor that she had had severe right loin pain and had been experiencing fevers and shivering for the past 24 hours.
Aveo Pharmaceuticals Inc reported that it was informed by its partner Astellas Pharma Inc that it would not be seeking marketing approval for their experimental kidney cancer drug, tivozanib, in...
The Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board has granted marketing authorisation for Vesomni (solifenacin and tamsulosin), from Astellas, in the Netherlands for treatment of moderate to severe storage...
Data from the STRATO study demonstrates the potential for LCP-Tacro (tacrolimus once daily), from Veloxis Pharmaceuticals, to improve tacrolimus-induced tremors in stable Kidney Transplant...
Possible searches include drugs or medicines (by brand, generic ingredient or drug class), diseases, conditions and more.
Treatment of the symptoms (increased urinary frequency and/or urgency and/or urgency incontinence) that may occur in patients with overactive bladder syndrome. ...
Symptomatic treatment of urge incontinence and/or increased urinary frequency and urgency as may occur in patients with overactive bladder syndrome....
For the local treatment of vulvovaginal candidosis and superinfections due to gram-positive bacteria. ...
The European Association of Urology (EAU) Urolithiasis Guidelines Panel have prepared these..
Urinary incontinence (UI) is an extremely common complaint in every part of the world. It causes a..
Cranberry-lingonberry Juice Started During Acute Infection in Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Children21-05-2013
Cranberry and cranberry-lingonberry juice prevented urinary tract infections in children and in adults in our earlier clinical trials. The preventive effect was, however, observed late in the follow-up and the next recurrence was not prevented in children. The investigators hypothesize that cranberry-lingonberry juice..
Effect of 3g Versus 2 g MMF in Combination With Tacrolimus on Progression of Renal Allograft Interstitial Fibrosis18-05-2013
Development of chronic changes (scarring) in transplanted kidney tissue is a major cause of long-term kidney function deterioration and ultimately graft loss. It results from both immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is immunosuppressive drug used for prevention of rejection after..
Objective: To determine the in vivo ability to predict uric acid stone composition by Hounsfield units (HU) with the addition of urine parameters. Methods: We reviewed all consecutive stones sent for analysis during a 4-year period from our institution for patients with an in-house computed tomography (CT) scan within..
Reverse Mode of the Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Subtype 3 in Interstitial Cells of Cajal From Rat Bladder
Objective: To investigate how the sodium/calcium exchanger subtype 3 (NCX3) and its reverse mode contribute to the function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from the rat bladder. Methods: The study used 20 female Wistar rats. We observed the expression of the NCX3 expression in the bladder using reverse..
Kidney eGFR Estimator for iPad - £1.49
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High temperature and urinary tract painon doc2doc
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