An infectious disease is caused by the transmission of a pathogen (bacterium, fungus, virus, parasite, prion) that will cause a harmful or lethal disorder in the host-organism.1
Infectious diseases kill more than 14 million people each year, mainly in developing countries.2 Nearly 90% of these deaths are attributable to five major infectious diseases (AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and acute diarrheal and...
Pathogens causing infectious diseases evolve and spread rapidly.2 The horizontal transfer of their genes, and their high mutation rates allow them to respond to environmental stress and to survive in new environments.7 Within a relatively short period of time after the first antimicrobial drugs were introduced, bacteria began exhibiting varying degrees of resistance.8 The excessive use of antibiotics in agriculture, and in both human and veterinary medicine, has played a critical causative role in the development of antibiotic resistance.8 This resistance has severely restricted treatment options and may eventually lead to therapeutic dead-ends.7 Sometimes these changes allow them to cross the species barrier from animals to humans and infect new hosts, such as Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).2
The large number of passengers and freight traveling through Europe is also a major risk factor for the spread of infectious diseases.9 In 2008, Europeans continued to represent the majority of international travellers (55.2%), and Europe remained the world’s largest destination region (53%).9 Such intense international traffic between Europe and the rest of the world results in greater vulnerability to the transmission of infectious diseases.9
1. Beers M.H. et al. The Merck manual of medical information. Merck research laboratories. Second home edition. 2003, 1085-1184.
2. Marcus B.A. et al. Deadly diseases and epidemics: Malaria. InfoBase Publishing. Second edition. 2009 : 119 pages.
3. WHO. Cholera annual report 2009. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2010 ; 85 (31) : 293-308, (available online).
4. Nathanson N. et al. From emergence to eradication: Tthe epidemiology of poliomyelitis deconstructed. American Journal of Epidemiology. December 2010 ; 172 (11) : 1213–1229.
5. Fears R. et al. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in the European Union: Opportunities and challenges for control. Tuberculosis. May 2010 ; 90 (3) : 182-187.
6. Sabbe M. et al. Measles resurgence in Belgium from January to mid-April 2011: a preliminary report. Euro Surveillance. April 2011 ; 16 (16).
7. Song J.-H. et al. Respiratory infections due to drug-resistant bacteria. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. September 2010 ; 24 (3) : 639-653.
8. Rosen T. Antibiotic resistance: an editorial review with recommendations. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. July 2011 ; 10 (7) : 724-33.
9. Field V. et al. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2010 ; 10 : 330.
Content on this page
- Infectious Diseases Knowledge Centres
- Anti-Infectives Knowledge Network
- Anti-Infectives Knowledge Centre
The Anti-infectives Knowledge Network (AIKN), an initiative by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, shares the expertise and experience of a number of Thought leaders in the area of anti-infectives.
Topics from EBMT 2013 covered include:
- Advances in prevention strategies for cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Managing infectious complications in HSCT recipients
- Prophylaxis and management of fungal infections
- Advances and on-going challenges in managing invasive fungal infections
Additional content recently added to the Anti-infectives Knowledge Network includes:
- Slides shared by the faculty from the Seeing CDI differently CME-accredited meeting held in London, February 2013. This meeting was funded by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd. Content was driven by a scientific steering committee
- Free downloadable 2012 ESCMID Guidelines Supplement for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases and related slides for use in your own presentations
Future 2013 coverage will include congress reports and interactive presentations from ECCMID, EHA, ESOT and TIMM.
We encourage you to return regularly to read the news, clinical insights, and essential information from the latest congresses.
Click here to enter the Anti-infectives Knowledge Network.
Date of Preparation: May 2013 AI/13/0011/EUf
The last decade has seen an increase in the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), making it one of the most talked about disease topics with many recent congresses focusing on the disease.
As the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in industrialised countries1 detection and treatment of CDI is extremely important. The ESCMID guidelines recommend that diagnosis is based upon both signs and symptoms and laboratory evidence of toxin producing C. difficile in stools.1,2 In addition antibiotic treatment to eradicate severe C. difficle infection is recommended in these guidelines.2
The management of systemic fungal infections is also a major challenge for healthcare professionals. Due to the invasive nature of fungal infections, many treatments are pre-emptive and are therefore initiated without identifying the specific fungus involved. Targeted approaches will become a more viable option as the speed and delivery of diagnostic methods improve.
The Anti-infectives Knowledge Centre aims to provide you with the most recent information in the areas of both CDI and systemic fungal infections with regularly updated content to help assist in the fight against these diseases.
The Knowledge Centre currently provides information on CDI, including:
- Prevalence – the incidence of CDI and the factors that have been attributed to the rise in these infections
- Symptoms – the symptoms of CDI, including how pseudomembranous colitis manifests
- Recurrence – the impact of recurring infection on patient outcomes
- Diagnosis – the importance of early diagnosis and the diagnostic tests available
- Treatment – treatment options recommended by the current ESCMID guidelines
Additional information on systemic fungal infections will be added soon.
Enter the Anti-infectives Knowledge Centre
1. Crobach MJ, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 1053‐1066
2. Bauer MP, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 1067‐1079
Date of preparation November 2012 AI/12/0038/EUc
TaiGen Biotechnology has submitted an New Drug Application for the oral formulation of nemonoxacin, for Infectious Diseases, with the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration and China Food and Drug Administration. The application is based on a pivotal Phase III trial with 532 patients in community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP).
The trial was conducted in both Taiwan and mainland China (441...
Gilead Sciences, Inc. has announced that the company has received Complete Response Letters from the FDA for its New Drug Applications (NDAs) for elvitegravir and cobicistat for use as part of HIV treatment regimens.
In its communications,the FDA states that it cannot approve the applications in their current forms. The letters state that during recent inspections, deficiencies in...
Phase II data show CEM 101 (Cempra Inc) useful against urogenital Infections and multidrug-resistant pathogens28-04-2013
New Phase II data on CEM 101 (solithromycin), from Cempra Inc, in patients with Infectious Diseases show that patients with gonococcal infections were treated successfully in 100% of cases. Infections were eradicated from all 22 evaluable patients (from an enrollment of 28) including from cervical, urethral, rectal and pharyngeal infection sites. It was well tolerated and was accompanied by...
Possible searches include drugs or medicines (by brand, generic ingredient or drug class), diseases, conditions and more.
REYATAZ is indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infected adults in combination with other antiretroviral medicinal products. In antiretroviral treatment experienced patients, the demonstration of...
Zeffix is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults with: • compensated liver disease with evidence of active viral replication, persistently elevated serum alanine...
Ziagen is indicated in antiretroviral combination therapy for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The demonstration of the benefit of Ziagen is mainly based on results of...
Due to the increasing threat of resistant pathogens worldwide, it has become imperative to limit the..
Neutropenic sepsis is a potentially fatal complication of anticancer treatment (particularly..
A Phase 1 Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of GS-5816 in Subjects With Normal Hepatic Function and Moderate or Severe Hepatic Impairment20-03-2013
This is a Phase 1 Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Study to evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of GS-5816 in subjects with normal hepatic function and moderate or severe hepatic impairment.
Hepatitis B vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine used widely throughout the world. Because of this it is a useful vaccine in which to develop new methods for studying immune responses. Measuring the immune response to vaccines helps us to understand how they work and whether they are likely to protect any individual..
Pediatric Infectious Disease
Background: We studied the clinical presentation, treatment response and outcome in children with HIV-TB co-infection, registered at PCOE, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bangalore. Methods: All 590 HIV infected children registered at our center were evaluated for TB infection. Information on TB was collected..
Paediatric bone and joint infections are more common in boys and toddlers: a national epidemiology study
Aim: Little is known about bone and joint infections (BJIs) in children, despite the risk of growth disturbance. This study examined BJIs epidemiology using the French National Hospital Discharge Database (HD). Methods: Any child <15 years hospitalized with an HD diagnosis of BJI, alone or in combination with sepsis or..
Antibiotics Kinetics - £12.69
Infectious disease compedium - £0.81
To vitamin D or not to D? That is the question!on doc2doc
... interest in NOT recommending vitamin D! If respiratory tract infections, cancers and depressions can be reduced (to name just a few) then it is ...
What's the most ridiculous rule your hospital has enforced?on doc2doc
... bare below the elbows"? - my local infection control person can't. All the rules around the infection control risks of clothing (ties, earing ...
High temperature and urinary tract painon doc2doc
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