17 Jun 2009

ZINNAT (Cefuroxime) - United Kingdom

Updated: 17 Jun 2009

ZINNAT

Cefuroxime axetil is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by sensitive bacteria. Lower respiratory tract infections for example, acute bronchitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia.

Upper respiratory tract infections for example, ear, nose, throat infections, such as otitis media, sinusitis, tonsillitis and pharyngitis. Genito-urinary tract infections for example, pyelonephritis, cystitis and urethritis. Skin and soft tissue infections for example, furunculosis, pyoderma and impetigo.

Treatment of early Lyme disease and subsequent prevention of late Lyme disease in adults and children over 12 years old. Gonorrhoea acute uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis, and cervicitis. Cefuroxime is also available as the sodium salt (Zinacef) for parenteral administration. This permits the use of sequential therapy with the same antibiotic, when a change from parenteral to oral therapy is clinically indicated.

Where appropriate Zinnat is effective when used following initial parenteral Zinacef (cefuroxime sodium) in the treatment of pneumonia and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

ZINNAT Description, Presentation and Dosage

ZINNAT Description

ZINNAT Drug Class Description

Cephalosporins.

ZINNAT Drug Description

Each tablet contains 125mg cefuroxime (as cefuroxime axetil).

ZINNAT Generic Name

Cefuroxime

ZINNAT Presentation

ZINNAT Presentation

White, film-coated, capsule-shaped tablet plain on one side and engraved with 'GXES5' on the other.

ZINNAT Manufacturer

GlaxoSmithKline(GSK)

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ZINNAT Dosage

ZINNAT Adult Dosage

Route of administration: oral

Dosage in adults

Most infections will respond to 250mg bd. In mild to moderate lower respiratory tract infections e.g. bronchitis 250mg bd should be given. For more severe lower respiratory tract infections, or if pneumonia is suspected then 500mg bd should be given. For urinary tract infections a dose of 125mg bd is usually adequate; in pyelonephritis the recommended dose is 250mg bd. A single dose of one gram is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Lyme disease in adults and children over the age of 12 years: the recommended dose is 500mg bd for 20 days.

Sequential therapy:

Pneumonia:

1.5g Zinacef bd (iv or im) for 48-72 hours, followed by 500mg bd Zinnat (cefuroxime axetil) oral therapy for 7 days.

Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis:

750mg Zinacef bd (iv or im) for 48-72 hours, followed by 500mg bd Zinnat (cefuroxime axetil) oral therapy for 5-7 days.

Duration of both parenteral and oral therapy is determined by the severity of the infection and the clinical status of the patient.

 

ZINNAT Child Dosage

The usual dose is 125mg bd or 10mg/kg bd to a maximum of 250mg daily. For otitis media, in children less than 2 years of age the usual dosage is 125mg bd or 10mg/kg bd to a maximum of 250mg daily and in children over 2 years of age, 250mg bd or 15mg/kg bd to a maximum of 500mg daily. There is no experience in children under 3 months of age.

Zinnat Tablets should not be crushed, therefore in younger children the suspension is more appropriate.

ZINNAT Elderly Dosage

Elderly and patients with renal impairment

No special precautions are necessary in patients with renal impairment or on renal dialysis or in the elderly at dosages up to the normal maximum of 1g per day.

The usual course of therapy is seven days.

Zinnat should be taken after food for optimum absorption.

ZINNAT Precautions, Reactions and Contraindications

ZINNAT Special Precautions

ZINNAT Special Precautions

Special care is indicated in patients who have experienced an allergic reaction to penicillins or other beta-lactams.

As with other antibiotics, use of cefuroxime axetil may result in the overgrowth of Candida. Prolonged use may also result in the overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms (e.g. Enterococci and Clostridium difficile), which may require interruption of treatment.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, therefore, it is important to consider its diagnosis in patients who develop serious diarrhoea during or after antibiotic use.

The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction has been seen following Zinnat treatment of Lyme disease. It results from the bactericidal activity of Zinnat on the causative organism of Lyme disease, the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. Patients should be reassured that this is common and usually self-limited consequence of antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease.

With a sequential therapy regime the timing of change to oral therapy is determined by severity of the infection, clinical status of the patient and susceptibility of the pathogens involved. The change to oral therapy should only be made once there is a clear clinical improvement. If there has been no clinical improvement after 72 hours of parenteral treatment, then the patient's treatment should be reviewed. Please refer to the relevant prescribing information for cefuroxime sodium before initiating sequential therapy.

ZINNAT Adverse Reactions

ZINNAT Adverse Reactions

Adverse drug reactions to cefuroxime axetil are generally mild and transient in nature.

The following convention has been used for the classification of frequency:

very common (GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO (8805)1/10), common (GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO (8805)1/100, <1/10), uncommon (GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO (8805)1/1000, <1/100), rare (GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO (8805)1/10,000 and <1/1000), very rare (<1/10,000).

Infections and infestations

Common: Candida overgrowth

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Common: Eosinophilia

Uncommon: Positive Coombs' test, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia (sometimes profound)

Very rare: Haemolytic anaemia

Cephalosporins as a class tend to be absorbed onto the surface of red cells membranes and react with antibodies directed against the drug to produce a positive Coombs' test (which can interfere with cross-matching of blood) and very rarely haemolytic anaemia.

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity reactions including

Uncommon: Skin rashes

Rare: Urticaria, pruritus

Very rare: Drug fever, serum sickness, anaphylaxis

Nervous system disorders

Common: Headache, dizziness

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: Gastrointestinal disturbances including diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain

Uncommon: Vomiting

Rare: Pseudomembranous colitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Common: Transient increases of hepatic enzyme levels, [ALT (SGPT), AST (SGOT), LDH]

Very rare: Jaundice (predominantly cholestatic), hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Very rare: Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (exanthematic necrolysis)

ZINNAT Contraindications

ZINNAT Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to cephalosporin antibiotics.

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