Diabetes and Endocrinology Topic Homepage

Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre

Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre

Based on current estimates, the global prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased almost 10 fold since 1985 and is expected to rise to 552 million by 2030,1 and when absolute numbers of people with diabetes are considered, it is South East Asia and the West Pacific that are expected to experience the highest increases in prevalence over the coming years.2

Type 2 diabetes mellitus can be defined according to fasting plasma glucose and 2 hour plasma glucose levels. The first is assessed after 8-10 hours of fasting, usually in the morning. The second is measured by an oral glucose tolerance test, assessing venous plasma glucose 2 hours after ingestion of a 75g oral glucose load.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus involves two primary pathogenic mechanisms; insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance occurs when the insulin in the body does not exert sufficient action proportional to its blood concentration.3,4 Impaired insulin secretion is characterised by decreased glucose responsiveness, and is observed before the clinical onset of disease.4

The Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre aims to provide clear and concise information based on current accepted guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with this disease. In addition the Knowledge Centre also provides access to key guidelines and a review of treatment options available.


References

  1. Murea M, Ma L, Freedman BI. Genetic and environmental factors associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications. Rev Diabetic Studies 2012;9:6-22.
  2. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes atlas: second edition. 2002. Available at: www.idf.org/sites/default/files/IDF_Diabetes_Atlas_2ndEd.pdf (accessed 18 November 2013).
  3. Scheen AJ. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Acta Clinica Belg 2003;58:335-341.
  4. Kaku K. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its treatment policy. JMAJ 2010;53:41-46.

 

Men's Health

Men's Health

The Men’s Health Knowledge Centre is a resource for healthcare professionals contains a latest updates section with monthly editorials of recently published articles in the area of hypogonadism (low testosterone), and the effect this hormone deficiency has on has on hypogonal men. This clear and concise information concerning this endocrine disorder makes this resource essential regular viewing for endocrinologists.

In addition to this reguarally updated content, sections detailing the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) or hypogonadism (low testosterone) are also available. This extensive resource aims to provide endocrinologists and other healthcare professionals with a better understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of these diseases and provide information about available treatment options for these men.

Medical Videos

Ann T. Sweeney, MD, discusses the efficacy of team-managed insulin initiation compared with a standard approach in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Ann T. Sweeney, MD, discusses the efficacy of team-managed insulin initiation compared with a standard approach in patients with type 2 diabetes.
An Overview of Pancreatic NET and the Available Treatments
An Overview of Pancreatic NET and the Available Treatments
Peter Attia: What if we're wrong about diabetes?
Peter Attia: What if we're wrong about diabetes?
Diabetic Macular Edema
Diabetic Macular Edema
ADA/EASD Consensus Algorithm for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
ADA/EASD Consensus Algorithm for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
The Cause of Obesity
The Cause of Obesity
Diuretics, b-blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes
Diuretics, b-blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes - Professor Edwin Gale discusses achievements in diabetes research and the theory around category error.
Type 2 Diabetes - Professor Edwin Gale discusses achievements in diabetes research and the theory around category error.
From the Monster's Mouth - A BMJ Investigation into the effects of Type 2 Diabetes Treatments on the Pancreas
From the Monster's Mouth - A BMJ Investigation into the effects of Type 2 Diabetes Treatments on the Pancreas

Recent Drug Updates

Clinical Guidelines

ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD

Oct 2013

The emphasis in these Guidelines is to provide information on the current state of the art in how to..

... prevent and manage the diverse problems associated with the effects of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) on the heart and vasculature in a holistic manner. In describing the mechanisms of disease,we hope to provide an educational tool and, in describing the latest management approaches, an algorithm for achieving the best care for patients in an individualized setting. It should be noted that these guidelines are written for the management of the combination of CVD (or risk of CVD) and DM, not as a separate guideline for each condition.

2013 ETA Guideline: Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

Oct 2013

The consequences of Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH) are variable at several levels and may depend..

... on the duration and the degree of elevation of the serum TSH. However, a number of important questions about SCH remain, including whether it increases cardiovascular (CV) risk or mortality, whether it negatively influences metabolic parameters and whether it should be treated with L -thyroxine. These open questions have prompted the European Thyroid Association (ETA) to form a task force with the aim of drawing up guidelines on the management of SCH in adults. A specific guideline on the management of SCH in children and in pregnancy will be prepared separately and these subjects are not covered in this guidance. Similarly, interpretation of elevated serum TSH while taking amiodarone is not covered in this guideline. Population screening for hypothyroidism was also considered a separate issue and is not covered by this guideline.

Online CME

Clinical Review - Endometriosis

This activity covers the diagnosis and management of endometriosis.

Clinical Review - Type 2 diabetes mellitus

This activity covers the diagnosis and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Obesity Management Today: Elevating Care via New Therapeutic Options

This activity is intended for primary care physicians, endocrinologists, nurses, obstetricians, gynecologists, and other allied healthcare professionals. The goal of this activity is to discuss 2 barriers to obesity treatment:...

Clinical Trials

Impact of ELKa, the Toolset for Food Exchanges Calculation on Metabolic Control in Pediatric Patients With Diabetes Type 1.

16-07-2014

ELKa system is an advanced toolset which helps performing calculation of carbohydrate (CHO) and fat/protein (FP) exchanges. It consists of ELKa software including database of various meals and nutrients and ELKaPlus digital kitchen scale transmitting weight of products in a real-time to a computer via universal..

... serial bus (USB) port. After choosing the name of particular product from the list, the program gives precise information about the amount of CHO and FP exchanges in serving.

The aim of the study is to investigate the benefit of using ELKa toolset in comparison with standard method of CHO and FP counting on metabolic control in type 1 diabetic children.

T1D Risk Assessment in Kids With Relatives (TRAKR)

03-07-2014

The purpose of this study is to determine whether early immunological markers (activation of autoreactive T lymphocytes) precede and are predictive of the appearance of autoantibodies in children born from type 1 diabetic parents.

Back to top