Based on current estimates, the global prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased almost 10 fold since 1985 and is expected to rise to 552 million by 2030,1 and when absolute numbers of people with diabetes are considered, it is South East Asia and the West Pacific that are expected to experience the highest increases in prevalence over the coming years.2
Type 2 diabetes mellitus can be defined according to fasting plasma glucose and 2 hour plasma glucose levels. The first is assessed after 8-10 hours of fasting, usually in the morning. The second is measured by an oral glucose tolerance test, assessing venous plasma glucose 2 hours after ingestion of a 75g oral glucose load.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus involves two primary pathogenic mechanisms; insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance occurs when the insulin in the body does not exert sufficient action proportional to its blood concentration.3,4 Impaired insulin secretion is characterised by decreased glucose responsiveness, and is observed before the clinical onset of disease.4
The Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre aims to provide clear and concise information based on current accepted guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with this disease. In addition the Knowledge Centre also provides access to key guidelines and a review of treatment options available.
- Murea M, Ma L, Freedman BI. Genetic and environmental factors associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications. Rev Diabetic Studies 2012;9:6-22.
- International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes atlas: second edition. 2002. Available at: www.idf.org/sites/default/files/IDF_Diabetes_Atlas_2ndEd.pdf (accessed 18 November 2013).
- Scheen AJ. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Acta Clinica Belg 2003;58:335-341.
- Kaku K. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its treatment policy. JMAJ 2010;53:41-46.