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Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre

Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre

Based on current estimates, the global prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased almost 10 fold since 1985 and is expected to rise to 552 million by 2030,1 and when absolute numbers of people with diabetes are considered, it is South East Asia and the West Pacific that are expected to experience the highest increases in prevalence over the coming years.2

Type 2 diabetes mellitus can be defined according to fasting plasma glucose and 2 hour plasma glucose levels. The first is assessed after 8-10 hours of fasting, usually in the morning. The second is measured by an oral glucose tolerance test, assessing venous plasma glucose 2 hours after ingestion of a 75g oral glucose load.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus involves two primary pathogenic mechanisms; insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance occurs when the insulin in the body does not exert sufficient action proportional to its blood concentration.3,4 Impaired insulin secretion is characterised by decreased glucose responsiveness, and is observed before the clinical onset of disease.4

The Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre aims to provide clear and concise information based on current accepted guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with this disease. In addition the Knowledge Centre also provides access to key guidelines and a review of treatment options available.


References

  1. Murea M, Ma L, Freedman BI. Genetic and environmental factors associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications. Rev Diabetic Studies 2012;9:6-22.
  2. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes atlas: second edition. 2002. Available at: www.idf.org/sites/default/files/IDF_Diabetes_Atlas_2ndEd.pdf (accessed 18 November 2013).
  3. Scheen AJ. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Acta Clinica Belg 2003;58:335-341.
  4. Kaku K. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its treatment policy. JMAJ 2010;53:41-46.

 

Obesity CME

,Understanding Obesity CME

In this accredited CME activity*, you will learn about obesity as a serious medical disease, including comorbidities and complications; the complex factors that influence its development; and the cornerstones of an effective weight management strategy.

After completion of this activity, healthcare professionals (endocrinologists, obesity specialists, primary care physicians and specialist nurses) should be able to:

  • explain why obesity is a serious medical disease
  • discuss how diet and physical activity are key determinants of obesity
  • provide an overview of clinical guideline recommendations for obesity management
  • assess the different approaches for achieving successful weight loss in obese individuals

*The European Obesity Initiative eCME module – Understanding Obesity, organised by apothecom as part of an unrestricted educational grant from Novo Nordisk, is awarded 2 European CME credits (ECMEC's).

Men's Health

Men's Health

The Men’s Health Knowledge Centre is a resource for healthcare professionals contains a latest updates section with monthly editorials of recently published articles in the area of hypogonadism (low testosterone), and the effect this hormone deficiency has on has on hypogonal men. This clear and concise information concerning this endocrine disorder makes this resource essential regular viewing for endocrinologists.

In addition to this reguarally updated content, sections detailing the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) or hypogonadism (low testosterone) are also available. This extensive resource aims to provide endocrinologists and other healthcare professionals with a better understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of these diseases and provide information about available treatment options for these men.

Medical Videos

An Overview of Pancreatic NET and the Available Treatments
An Overview of Pancreatic NET and the Available Treatments
Ann T. Sweeney, MD, discusses the efficacy of team-managed insulin initiation compared with a standard approach in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Ann T. Sweeney, MD, discusses the efficacy of team-managed insulin initiation compared with a standard approach in patients with type 2 diabetes.
From the Monster's Mouth - A BMJ Investigation into the effects of Type 2 Diabetes Treatments on the Pancreas
From the Monster's Mouth - A BMJ Investigation into the effects of Type 2 Diabetes Treatments on the Pancreas
Diuretics, b-blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes
Diuretics, b-blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes
Diabetic Macular Edema
Diabetic Macular Edema
Type 2 Diabetes - Professor Edwin Gale discusses achievements in diabetes research and the theory around category error.
Type 2 Diabetes - Professor Edwin Gale discusses achievements in diabetes research and the theory around category error.
The Cause of Obesity
The Cause of Obesity
ADA/EASD Consensus Algorithm for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
ADA/EASD Consensus Algorithm for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
Peter Attia: What if we're wrong about diabetes?
Peter Attia: What if we're wrong about diabetes?

Recent Drug Updates

Medical Journal Abstracts on Diabetes and Endocrinology

Metformin, cancer and glucose metabolism

Wed 01 Oct 2014 -  Endocrine-Related Cancer

Metformin is the firstline treatment for type 2 Diabetes Several clinical studies have reported that type 2 diabetic Patients treated with metformin might have a lower cancer risk One of the ...

The Relationship Between Prostate Cancer and Presence of Metabolic Syndrome and Late-onset Hypogonadism

Tue 30 Sep 2014 -  Urology

ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between prostate cancer PCa presence of metabolic syndrome MetS and lateonset hypogonadism LOHMaterials and MethodsOne hundred ...

Clinical Guidelines

Type 2 diabetes: The management of type 2 diabetes

Jul 2014

This guideline offers best practice advice on the care of people with type 2 diabetes. It does not..

... address care in or before pregnancy, or care by specialist services for specific advanced organ damage (cardiac, renal, eye, vascular, stroke and other services).

ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD

Oct 2013

The emphasis in these Guidelines is to provide information on the current state of the art in how to..

... prevent and manage the diverse problems associated with the effects of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) on the heart and vasculature in a holistic manner. In describing the mechanisms of disease,we hope to provide an educational tool and, in describing the latest management approaches, an algorithm for achieving the best care for patients in an individualized setting. It should be noted that these guidelines are written for the management of the combination of CVD (or risk of CVD) and DM, not as a separate guideline for each condition.

Online CME

Obesity Management Today: Elevating Care via New Therapeutic Options

This activity is intended for primary care physicians, endocrinologists, nurses, obstetricians, gynecologists, and other allied healthcare professionals. The goal of this activity is to discuss 2 barriers to obesity treatment:...

Hyperthyroidism

This activity provides an overview of the main causes of hyperthyroidism and includes recommendations about which patients to screen and on the choices of treatment.

Hypoglycaemia learning programme - Fear of hypoglycaemia

This video, part of the four-module Hypoglycaemia learning programme, describes the fear of hypoglycaemia that patients have and its impact on the management of diabetes from a specialist, GP and...

Clinical Trials

Long-Term Effectiveness of Liraglutide for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in Daily Practice

30-09-2014

This study is conducted in Europe. The aim of this study is to investigate Long-Term Effectiveness of Liraglutide for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in daily Practice.

Sitagliptin and Glucagon Counterregulation (SITACLAMP)

29-09-2014

To evaluate the effect of DPP-4 inhibition on glucagon counter-regulatory mechanisms at moderate hypoglycemia in metformin-treated subjects with T2DM.

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