Diabetes and Endocrinology Topic Homepage

Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre

Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre

Based on current estimates, the global prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased almost 10 fold since 1985 and is expected to rise to 552 million by 2030,1 and when absolute numbers of people with diabetes are considered, it is South East Asia and the West Pacific that are expected to experience the highest increases in prevalence over the coming years.2

Type 2 diabetes can be defined according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 hour plasma glucose levels. The first is assessed after 8-10 hours of fasting, usually in the morning. The second is measured by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) assessing venous plasma glucose 2 hour after ingestion of a 75g oral glucose load.

Type 2 Diabetes involves two primary pathogenic mechanisms; insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance occurs when the insulin in the body does not exert sufficient action proportional to its blood concentration.3,4 Impaired insulin secretion is characterised by decreased glucose responsiveness, and is observed before the clinical onset of disease.4

The Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Centre aims to provide clear and concise information based on current accepted guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with this disease. In addition the Knowledge Centre also provides access to key guidelines and a review of treatment options available.


  1. Murea M, Ma L, Freedman BI. Genetic and environmental factors associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic vascular complications. Rev Diabetic Studies 2012;9:6-22.
  2. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes atlas: second edition. 2002. Available at: www.idf.org/sites/default/files/IDF_Diabetes_Atlas_2ndEd.pdf (accessed 18 November 2013).
  3. Scheen AJ. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Acta Clinica Belg 2003;58:335-341.
  4. Kaku K. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its treatment policy. JMAJ 2010;53:41-46.


Men's Health

Men's Health

The Men’s Health Knowledge Centre is a resource for healthcare professionals contains a latest updates section with monthly editorials of recently published articles in the area of hypogonadism (low testosterone), and the effect this hormone deficiency has on has on hypogonal men. This clear and concise information concerning this endocrine disorder makes this resource essential regular viewing for endocrinologists.

In addition to this reguarally updated content, sections detailing the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) or hypogonadism (low testosterone) are also available. This extensive resource aims to provide endocrinologists and other healthcare professionals with a better understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of these diseases and provide information about available treatment options for these men.

Medical Videos

An Overview of Pancreatic NET and the Available Treatments
An Overview of Pancreatic NET and the Available Treatments
Elsevier presents A1chieve - Powered By Elsevier
Elsevier presents A1chieve
A1chieve results introduced by Professor Philip Home - Powered By Elsevier
A1chieve results introduced by Professor Philip Home
A1Cchieve by Stephen Colagiuri - Powered By Elsevier
A1Cchieve by Stephen Colagiuri
Insights from India. Dr Sanjay Karla introducing local A1chieve data - Powered By Elsevier
Insights from India. Dr Sanjay Karla introducing local A1chieve data
A1chieve results in Pakistan - Powered By Elsevier
A1chieve results in Pakistan
Peter Attia: What if we're wrong about diabetes?
Peter Attia: What if we're wrong about diabetes?
Diabetic Macular Edema
Diabetic Macular Edema
The Cause of Obesity
The Cause of Obesity
ADA/EASD Consensus Algorithm for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
ADA/EASD Consensus Algorithm for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Recent Drug Updates

Clinical Guidelines

ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD

Oct 2013

The emphasis in these Guidelines is to provide information on the current state of the art in how to..

... prevent and manage the diverse problems associated with the effects of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) on the heart and vasculature in a holistic manner. In describing the mechanisms of disease,we hope to provide an educational tool and, in describing the latest management approaches, an algorithm for achieving the best care for patients in an individualized setting. It should be noted that these guidelines are written for the management of the combination of CVD (or risk of CVD) and DM, not as a separate guideline for each condition.

2013 ETA Guideline: Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

Oct 2013

The consequences of Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH) are variable at several levels and may depend..

... on the duration and the degree of elevation of the serum TSH. However, a number of important questions about SCH remain, including whether it increases cardiovascular (CV) risk or mortality, whether it negatively influences metabolic parameters and whether it should be treated with L -thyroxine. These open questions have prompted the European Thyroid Association (ETA) to form a task force with the aim of drawing up guidelines on the management of SCH in adults. A specific guideline on the management of SCH in children and in pregnancy will be prepared separately and these subjects are not covered in this guidance. Similarly, interpretation of elevated serum TSH while taking amiodarone is not covered in this guideline. Population screening for hypothyroidism was also considered a separate issue and is not covered by this guideline.

Online CME

A Case-based Look at Effective Weight-Loss Strategies in Today's World

Nov 2013
... development of patient-centered treatment plans, which may include behavioral therapy, lifestyle modifications, and/or pharmacotherapy, in those who are overweight or obese.

Clinical review - management of people with diabetes wanting to fast during Ramadan

Apr 2013
... during Ramadan. For all audiences. This module provides a thorough overview of the topic and a test of your knowledge at the end.

Clinical Trials

DNA Promoter Hypermethylation as a Blood Based Maker for Pancreatic Cancer


The objectives of this project are to test whether alteration in DNA hypermethylation in plasma is: - a diagnostic marker for pancreatic cancer - a prognostic marker for pancreatic cancer - a marker for recurrence of pancreatic cancer - changing during the course of chronic pancreatitis, with the purpose of..

... finding patients with high risk of developing pancreatic cancer

Cirrhosis, Effects of TRAnsplantation and Diabetes (CETRA)


This observational study is aimed at assessing insulin secretion and sensitivity by the use of a mathematical modeling from oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with liver cirrhosis undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), before and at various time points after OLT.

Back to top