Intensive care is the hospital based specialty dedicated to treating critically ill and high risk patients who require aggressive treatment and continuous monitoring.1 Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are usually complex, with illnesses involving multiple systems and in some cases multiple diseases.1
The main functions of ICUs can be divided into two groups; firstly treatment of emergency patients...
In the UK in 2008 there were only 3498 critical care beds; 1970 in ICUs and 1528 in high-dependency units (HDUs). This equates to only 8.6 beds per 100,000 people.3 For this reason the use of ICU and HDU beds are only reserved for those who will benefit significantly from them.
Elective ICU patients are admitted as a precaution, rather than because immediate treatment is required. Patients routinely receive intensive care treatment following cardiac surgery and neurosurgery.4 In contrast, emergency patients are admitted requiring immediate treatment. This may be due to trauma or an unexpected surgical complication.
1. Varon J. et al. Handbook of Critical and Intensive Care Medicine. Springer. 2010 : 422 pages.
2. Takala J. et al. What is Critical Care Medicine. Clinical Critical Care Medicine. Elsevier Ltd. 2006 : xv-xvi.
3. Williams C. et al. Criteria for ICU Admission and Severity of Illness Scoring. Surgery (Oxford). May 2009 ; 27 (5) : 201-206.
4. Weissman C. et al. Who Recieves Postoperative Intensive and Intermediate Care?. Journal of Clinical Anaesthesia. June 2008 ; 20 (4) : 263-270.
Content on this page
- Critical Care/Intensive Care Knowledge Centres
- Anti-Infectives Knowledge Network
- Anti-Infectives Knowledge Centre
The Anti-infectives Knowledge Network (AIKN), an initiative by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, shares the expertise and experience of a number of Thought leaders in the area of anti-infectives.
Topics from EBMT 2013 covered include:
- Advances in prevention strategies for cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Managing infectious complications in HSCT recipients
- Prophylaxis and management of fungal infections
- Advances and on-going challenges in managing invasive fungal infections
Additional content recently added to the Anti-infectives Knowledge Network includes:
- Slides shared by the faculty from the Seeing CDI differently CME-accredited meeting held in London, February 2013. This meeting was funded by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd. Content was driven by a scientific steering committee
- Free downloadable 2012 ESCMID Guidelines Supplement for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases and related slides for use in your own presentations
Future 2013 coverage will include congress reports and interactive presentations from ECCMID, EHA, ESOT and TIMM.
We encourage you to return regularly to read the news, clinical insights, and essential information from the latest congresses.
Click here to enter the Anti-infectives Knowledge Network.
Date of Preparation: May 2013 AI/13/0011/EUf
The last decade has seen an increase in the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), making it one of the most talked about disease topics with many recent congresses focusing on the disease.
As the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in industrialised countries1 detection and treatment of CDI is extremely important. The ESCMID guidelines recommend that diagnosis is based upon both signs and symptoms and laboratory evidence of toxin producing C. difficile in stools.1,2 In addition antibiotic treatment to eradicate severe C. difficle infection is recommended in these guidelines.2
The management of systemic fungal infections is also a major challenge for healthcare professionals. Due to the invasive nature of fungal infections, many treatments are pre-emptive and are therefore initiated without identifying the specific fungus involved. Targeted approaches will become a more viable option as the speed and delivery of diagnostic methods improve.
The Anti-infectives Knowledge Centre aims to provide you with the most recent information in the areas of both CDI and systemic fungal infections with regularly updated content to help assist in the fight against these diseases.
The Knowledge Centre currently provides information on CDI, including:
- Prevalence – the incidence of CDI and the factors that have been attributed to the rise in these infections
- Symptoms – the symptoms of CDI, including how pseudomembranous colitis manifests
- Recurrence – the impact of recurring infection on patient outcomes
- Diagnosis – the importance of early diagnosis and the diagnostic tests available
- Treatment – treatment options recommended by the current ESCMID guidelines
Additional information on systemic fungal infections will be added soon.
Enter the Anti-infectives Knowledge Centre
1. Crobach MJ, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 1053‐1066
2. Bauer MP, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 1067‐1079
Date of preparation November 2012 AI/12/0038/EUc
FDA approves Kcentra (CSL Behring)to reverse vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation with major bleeding01-05-2013
The FDA on 29 April 2013 has approved Kcentra (Prothrombin Complex Concentrate, Human) for the urgent reversal of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulation in adults with acute major bleeding. Plasma is the only other product approved for this use in the United States. Patients receiving chronic anticoagulation therapy with warfarin and other VKA anticoagulants to prevent blood clotting in...
The Ilesto 7 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (ICD/CRT-D) series, from Biotronik, has received CE approval in the EU for patients with Heart Failure who require resynchronisation therapy. The Ilesto 7 series includes one of the world’s smallest ICDs and features ProMRI technology, which enables access to potentially life-saving MR scans. The...
New results of needle-free Symphony Transdermal Continuous Glucose Monitoring (tCGM) System, from Echo Therapeutics, a non-invasive, wireless, transdermal continuous glucose monitoring system, collected from a clinical study of 15 critically ill patients over a 24 hour period at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, have been presented. Results show that using 570 Symphony tCGM glucose readings,...
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Esmeron is indicated in adult and paediatric patients (from term neonaotes to adolescents [0 to <18 years]) as an adjunct to general anaesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation during routine...
Dobutamine Concentrate is indicated in adults who require inotropic support in the treatment of low output cardiac failure associated with myocardial infarction, open heart surgery,...
Ultiva is indicated as an analgesic agent for use during induction and/or maintenance of general anaesthesia under close supervision. Ultiva is indicated for provision of analgesia and sedation in...
Opioids in palliative care: safe and effective prescribing of strong opioids for pain in palliative care of adultsMay 2012
Pain is common in advanced and progressive disease. Up to two-thirds of people with cancer..
The advice in the NICE guideline covers the care of adults who, as a result of critical illness,..
Invasive Candida infections are burdened with a high mortality rate and is very common in intensive care units. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of empirical treatment with micafungin in adult patients with suspected invasive candidiasis.
In this trial, our goal is to determine the pharmacokinetics of micafungin in a non-selected cohort of patients with suspected or proven invasive fungal infections. Patients will receive micafungin for the period necessary to achieve clinical and / or mycological cure. An attempt will be made to have 2 PK curves, one..
Inhaled Dornase alfa (Pulmozyme) as a noninvasive treatment of atelectasis in mechanically ventilated patients
Journal of Critical Care
Background: Lobar or segmental collapse of the lung in mechanically ventilated patients is a common occurrence in the intensive care unit. Management is labor and time intensive and not highly effective. Methods: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study to determine whether nebulized..
Clinical epidemiology of central venous catheter–related bloodstream infections in an intensive care unit in China
Journal of Critical Care
Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are universally used during the treatment of critically ill patients. Their use, however, is associated with a substantial infection risk. At present, there are few studies on catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) that are comparable with international similar..
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