Clinical laboratories are usually located within hospitals and are responsible for processing biochemical tests.
A lot can be discovered about the health of a patient by testing the components of their bodily fluids (blood, urine and faeces). The clinical laboratory is responsible for performing these tests in an accurate manner. The areas of testing include; haematology, microbiology, chemistry and immunology.1...
Microbiological tests are used to show the presence of bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites in the human body.2 This knowledge allows physicians to administer a more specific treatment with higher efficacy. This is of particular importance in a hospital setting where infection has occurred as complication following admission.
Biochemical tests are regularly used in medicine, both as a method for diagnosing and monitoring known metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hyperthyroidism, and to detect changes that could be the result of an underlying disease.3 Chemical tests to determine these include; acid-base tests to determine respiratory complications, fluid balance and electrolytes tests, renal function tests to determine the functioning of the glomeruli and tubules, presence of tumour markers, liver function tests and markers that determine myocardial injury.3 Most chemical tests are used to confirm a diagnosis and enable effective treatment plans to be implemented.
Immunodiagnostic and serodiagnostic tests measure the presence of antibodies in circulating blood and have been a gold-standard in detecting infection for years.4 In addition to disease detection, these tests are also able to detect Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) and determine a patient's Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). This is of particular importance in patients who are scheduled for organ transplant.4 This test determines whether a donor and recipient are compatible and therefore whether the organ is likely to be tolerated by the recipient's immune system.
1. Jones S.L. Clinical Laboratory Pearls. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. 2000 : 634 pages.
2. Nagoba B.S. et al. Clinical Microbiology. BI Publications Pvt Ltd. 2009 : 8-44.
3. Marshall W.J. et al. Clinical Chemistry. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2008 : 416 pages.
4. Fischback F.T. et al. A Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. 2009 : 564-688.
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- Clinical Laboratory Knowledge Centres
- Anti-Infectives Knowledge Network
- Anti-Infectives Knowledge Centre
The Anti-infectives Knowledge Network (AIKN), an initiative by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, shares the expertise and experience of a number of Thought leaders in the area of anti-infectives.
Topics from EBMT 2013 covered include:
- Advances in prevention strategies for cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Managing infectious complications in HSCT recipients
- Prophylaxis and management of fungal infections
- Advances and on-going challenges in managing invasive fungal infections
Additional content recently added to the Anti-infectives Knowledge Network includes:
- Slides shared by the faculty from the Seeing CDI differently CME-accredited meeting held in London, February 2013. This meeting was funded by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd. Content was driven by a scientific steering committee
- Free downloadable 2012 ESCMID Guidelines Supplement for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases and related slides for use in your own presentations
Future 2013 coverage will include congress reports and interactive presentations from ECCMID, EHA, ESOT and TIMM.
We encourage you to return regularly to read the news, clinical insights, and essential information from the latest congresses.
Click here to enter the Anti-infectives Knowledge Network.
Date of Preparation: May 2013 AI/13/0011/EUf
The last decade has seen an increase in the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), making it one of the most talked about disease topics with many recent congresses focusing on the disease.
As the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in industrialised countries1 detection and treatment of CDI is extremely important. The ESCMID guidelines recommend that diagnosis is based upon both signs and symptoms and laboratory evidence of toxin producing C. difficile in stools.1,2 In addition antibiotic treatment to eradicate severe C. difficle infection is recommended in these guidelines.2
The management of systemic fungal infections is also a major challenge for healthcare professionals. Due to the invasive nature of fungal infections, many treatments are pre-emptive and are therefore initiated without identifying the specific fungus involved. Targeted approaches will become a more viable option as the speed and delivery of diagnostic methods improve.
The Anti-infectives Knowledge Centre aims to provide you with the most recent information in the areas of both CDI and systemic fungal infections with regularly updated content to help assist in the fight against these diseases.
The Knowledge Centre currently provides information on CDI, including:
- Prevalence – the incidence of CDI and the factors that have been attributed to the rise in these infections
- Symptoms – the symptoms of CDI, including how pseudomembranous colitis manifests
- Recurrence – the impact of recurring infection on patient outcomes
- Diagnosis – the importance of early diagnosis and the diagnostic tests available
- Treatment – treatment options recommended by the current ESCMID guidelines
Additional information on systemic fungal infections will be added soon.
Enter the Anti-infectives Knowledge Centre
1. Crobach MJ, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 1053‐1066
2. Bauer MP, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 1067‐1079
Date of preparation November 2012 AI/12/0038/EUc
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Medtronic Inc.has announced the two-year results from its U.S. clinical study of the Endurant AAA Stent Graft System for Abdominal Aortic Anuerysm. Presented at this year's Charing Cross International Symposium in London, the prospective Endurant U.S. investigational device exemption (IDE) study's complete results at two years continue to demonstrate durable clinical performance with strong...
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