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Heart Failure

Heart Failure

Heart Failure is a progressive chronic disorder that results in the inability of the heart to pump blood efficiently to the body’s tissues.

Chronic heart failure is an increasing public health problem; the growing prevalence in industrialised countries means that 1-2% of the adult population of these countries are now thought to have chronic heart failure.1-3 Estimates suggest that the prevalence in Europe, USA and Japan could increase by approximately 16.5% over the next ten years.4

The prevalence of post-myocardial infarction heart failure is less well known as it is difficult to distinguish between pre-existing and incident heart failure. However current estimates suggest that approximately 1 in 5 patients hospitalised with an acute coronary syndrome either present with heart failure or develop heart failure during their hospital stay.5

Many of the signs and symptoms of heart failure are non-specific and vary in severity depending on the disease class. The most common of these are breathlessness, fatigue, exercise intolerance, and fluid retention as evidenced by ankle swelling, peripheral oedema, and an elevated jugular venous pressure.6

Due to the non-specific nature of symptoms, the diagnosis of heart failure can be difficult. Tests can include echocardiogram, ECG, chest X-ray, laboratory tests. Following a positive diagnosis heart failure is classified into functional classes that relate to disease severity.

Management of heart failure involves lifestyle modifications, pharmacological treatment and occasionally surgery. In patients with chronic heart failure, optimal therapy involves treatment with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, certain β-blockers and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist.

The Heart Failure Knowledge Centre brings together current information related to chronic heart failure and post-myocardial infarction, including:

  • Epidemiology
  • Symptoms and Diagnosis
  • Classification
  • Treatment Options

Enter the Heart Failure Knowledge Centre


References

  1. Zannad F, et al. Incidence, clinical and etiologic features, and outcomes of advanced chronic heart failure: the EPICAL Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1999; 33(3):734-742.
  2. Cowie MR, et al. The epidemiology of heart failure. European Heart Journal 1997;18(2):208-225.
  3. Mosterd A, Hoes A. Clinical epidemiology of heart failure. Heart 2007; 93:1137-1146.
  4. Decision Resources. Chronic Heart Failure. Cardium Study No.4 A Pharmacor Service. 2008.
  5. Steg PG, Dabbous OH, et al. Determinants and prognostic impact of heart failure complicating acutecoronary syndromes. Observations from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). Circulation2004;109:494-9.
  6. NICE Clinical Guideline No 108. Chronic Heart Failure. National clinical guideline for diagnosis and management in primary and secondary care. 2010.

Type 2 Diabetes

,

This educational resource contains a range of content developed for healthcare professionals based in Europe who are involved in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this section you will find:

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge Centre:
Provides prevalence statistics, treatment options, current diagnostic criteria from WHO and ADA and a section containing the latest guidelines.

Therapy Focus:
Compiles material on emerging insulin/incretin treatment combinations arranged across five informative sections.

'Role of Newer Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes in Combination with Insulin' CME:
EACCME-accredited CME activity consisting of three modules and worth 1 European CME credit (ECMEC).

Obesity CME series

,Obesity series

This EACCME-accredited obesity CME series contains three CME modules, which are ideal for healthcare professionals looking to improve their understanding of obesity as a serious medical illness.

Module 1 – Understanding Obesity
Learn more about obesity as a serious and complex medical illness including comorbidities and complications, the complex factors that influence its development and the cornerstones of an effective weight-management strategy.

Module 2 – Considerations for Individualising Pharmacotherapy
Learn about the complexities of obesity, appropriate use of pharmacotherapy for weight management and how to individualise patient care.

Module 3 – Rationale for Lifelong Behaviour Change
Explore the factors affecting maintenance of weight loss, the importance of implementing permanent behaviour changes to prevent weight regain and the components of a successful long-term weight-management strategy.

Upon successful completion of these modules, participants will receive a combined total of five European CME credits (ECMECs).

Anti-Infectives Knowledge Network CDI

,AIKN CDI

The Anti-Infectives Knowledge Network – Clostridium difficile infections (AIKN-CDI), an initiative by Astellas Pharma EMEA, shares the expertise and experience of thought leaders in the area of anti-infectives.

Recent content updates include:

  • Data presentations from the 35th International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (ISICEM), held in Brussels, Belgium 17–20 March 2015
  • Data from the largest ever European clinician consensus report on Clostridium difficile infection
  • Updates from the European Commission following the event hosted by CDI Europe and the European Hospital and Healthcare Federation (HOPE) on healthcare-associated infections and Clostridium difficile infection

Also available – interactive annotated treatment guidelines for the management of Clostridium difficile infection.

Please remember to return often to read updated news, clinical insights, and essential information from the latest anti-infectives congresses.

March 2015 FDX/15/0024/EUb

Clinical Case Studies

MRSA Endocarditis

Infection: Cardiovascular Infections

Christopher D. Pfeiffer, Clinical Fellow, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
Vance Fowler, Associate Professor and Infectious Diseases, Specialist, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA

Case History
A 64-year-old female presented with three weeks of progressive dyspnoea, nausea and vomiting.

Vascular Graft Infection

Infection: Cardiovascular Infections

Stephanie J. Dancer BSc, MB BS, MSc, MD, FRCPath, DTM&H, Consultant Microbiologist, NHS Lanarkshire, Scotland

Case History
A 72-year-old man was referred by his general practitioner complaining of intermittent pain in the legs on exercise.

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Clinical Guidelines

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The aim of this guideline is to provide advice, based on clinical evidence where available,..

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Online CME

Considerations for Individualising Pharmacotherapy

Learn about the complexities of obesity, appropriate use of pharmacotherapy for weight management and how to individualise patient care. EACCME accredited.

Understanding Obesity

Learn more about obesity as a serious and complex medical illness including comorbidities and complications, the complex factors that influence its development and the cornerstones of an effective weight-management strategy....

Rationale for Lifelong Behavioural Change

Explore the factors affecting maintenance of weight loss, the importance of implementing permanent behaviour changes to prevent weight regain and the components of a successful long-term weight-management strategy. EACCME accredited.

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Renal Sympathetic Denervation by Iberis System in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension - Iberis-HTN Registry

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The purpose of this study is to document safety and efficacy of renal sympathetic denervation treatment in subjects with uncontrolled hypertension by using Iberis renal denervation ...

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